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Étude des caloducs cryogéniques pulsés diphasiques d'un mètre de longueur

Abstract : A pulsating (or oscillating) heat pipe (PHP or OHP) is a heat transfer device composed of a single capillary tube bent in many U-turns, connecting an evaporator to a condenser, separated by an adiabatic part. In the PHP, temperature and pressure conditions of the working fluid are close to phase-change conditions. Due to this and to the capillary dimensions of the tube, the fluid is distributed in alternating liquid slugs and vapor plugs. Permanent thermal instabilities in the PHP create the oscillating flow which allows the transfer of heat from one end (the evaporator) to the other (the condenser).The objective of the present work consists in characterizing the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the meter-scale horizontal cryogenic pulsating heat pipes as a cooling solution for space superconducting magnets. To this, several experiments have been conducted in a cryogenic facility containing three different horizontal pulsating heat pipes. In addition, a numerical 2D model has been proposed for future horizontal pulsating heat pipes simulations.During the research project, numerous tests have been performed using three different working fluids: nitrogen, neon and argon. From experimental results of progressive heat load tests it has been possible to compare the maximum heat load transfer capacity of the PHP with each fluid and the corresponding thermal performance. It has also been noticed that each fluid presents a specific behavior concerning the fluid oscillations. In addition, the thermodynamic state of the fluid in operating conditions and the dry-out process have been characterized. Differences between fluid's behaviors have been partly explained by analyzing the evolution of the fluid physical properties related to the movement and the heat transfer capacity. Furthermore, it has been possible to conclude about the relation between the liquid filling ratio in the PHP and its thermal performance, determining the filling ratios giving the highest thermal performances. Moreover, similar tests have been performed in open configuration (with the PHP connected to the buffer volume) and closed configuration (with the PHP isolated from the buffer volume). From this, it has been possible to conclude about the regulation made by the buffer volume in case of overpressure in the PHP. Also, experimental results from long stability tests have confirmed that these pulsating heat pipe are able to work in stable conditions during long periods as a reliable cooling system. In addition to that, specific tests have been done to determine the optimum start-tup conditions, the influence of the temperature of the condenser in the thermal performance and the influence of the number of turns in the global heat transfer capacity. A final series of tests have been achieved with a sudden extra heat load at the surface of the evaporator while the PHP is operating in stable conditions, simulating a quench event of a superconducting magnet. Experimental results gave us precious information about the transient thermal behavior and operating limits of this kind of device during transient heat loads like quench situations. Concerning the numerical part, a numerical model has been proposed for transient simulations with a pressure-based Fluent solver using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in a 2D axisymmetric geometry. Certain characteristics of fluid dynamics in capillary tubes have been confirmed. It has also been noticed that thermodynamic instabilities are not enough to generate the fluid oscillations in capillary tubes. Even if the 2D axisymmetric simulation is still at its early stages, several aspects of the models have been validated after analyzing the evolution of different parameters, suggesting that this kind of model can be considered as a new platform for future 2D pulsating heat pipes simulations.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 19, 2019 - 2:16:51 PM
Last modification on : Friday, May 29, 2020 - 3:53:33 AM
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María Asunción Barba Higueras. Étude des caloducs cryogéniques pulsés diphasiques d'un mètre de longueur. Thermics [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS224⟩. ⟨tel-02370413⟩

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