, view of endocarp showing the reticulate pattern of ridges, Holotype specimen in basal view showing the trace left by the peduncle

, Lateral view of another specimen (MNHN.F.44564.) showing a comparable reticulum

, SEM view of ridges showing trace left by vascular bundles (MNHN.F.44655.)

, SEM transverse view of wall and ridge (MNHN.F.44697.)

, SEM transverse view showing the basal sclerotic layer and locule epidermal layer with papillae in contact with seed cells, p.44607

, SEM view of the vascular bundle (arrow) inside the endocarp wall (MNHN.F.44601.). of endocarp showing the reticulum of ridges and sub-apical horn-like protrusions, p.44562

, Same in dorsal view showing the keel surrounding the fruit

, Same in lateral view showing the second face of endocarp

, Same in apical view showing the ridges and sub-apical horn-like protrusions

, Same in basal view showing the trace left by the peduncle

, Lateral view of another specimen (MNHN.F.44556.)

, SEM view of reticulum of ridges showing tearing of primary layer (MNHN.F.44628.)

, Same in transverse view of wall and ridge

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. Soc and . Bengal, Nat. Hist, vol.41, issue.2, p.298, 1872.

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, Stachyanthus cuneatus Engl., Veg. Erde, vol.9, p.263, 1921.

, ? Neostachyanthus cuneatus (Engl.) Exell & Mendonça, Bol. Soc. Brot. II, vol.25, p.112, 1951.

, Stachyanthus donisii (Boutique) Boutique, Fl. Congo Belge, vol.9, p.259, 1960.

?. Neostachyanthus and . Boutique, Bull. Jard. Bot. État, vol.26, p.346, 1956.

, Stachyanthus occidentalis (Keay & É. Miège) Boutique, vol.29, p.431, 1959.

?. Neostachyanthus-occidentalis-keay and &. J. Miège, Bull. Jard. Bot. État. Brux, vol.25, p.271, 1955.

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, ? Neostachyanthus zenkeri (Engl.) Exell & Mendonça, Bol. Soc. Brot., sér, vol.2, p.111, 1951.

O. S. Stachyanthus, J. Moore, and . Bot, , vol.58, p.222, 1920.

, Total 152 species and 23 genera

, Epicarp : indumentum type

, Glabrous =>, vol.37

, Pilose =>, vol.38

, Pubescent =>, vol.39

. Strigose,

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => 41

, Homogeneous => Natsiatum herpeticum Buch.-Ham. ex Arn

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Lavigeria macrocarpa (Oliv.) Pierre Homogeneous => Cassinopsis madagascariensis Baill

, Endocarp : Apex structure

, Absent =>, vol.42

, Horns =>, vol.43

, Pores =>, vol.44

, Endocarp : Apex structure

, Absent => Stachyanthus donisii (Boutique) Boutique

, Horns => Miquelia assamica (Griff.) Mast. ex B.D.Jacks. Pores => Miquelia celebica Blume

, Epicarp : indumentum type

=. Pubescent and . Stachyanthus,

, Strigose => Miquelia caudata King 23 Epicarp : additionnal structure (?): Apex elongate => Pyrenacantha anhydathoda (Villiers) Byng & Utteridge Cap at the apex inflated => Pyrenacantha gossweileri (Exell) Byng & Utteridge 24 Epicarp : indumentum type

=. Pubescent, =. Pyrenacantha-klaineana-pierre-ex-exell-&-mendonça-strigose, . Pyrenacantha, and . Baill,

, Epicarp : indumentum type

. Pubescent-=>-pyrenacantha-rakotozafyi-labat, &. R. El-achkar, and . Rabev,

. Strigose,

, Pits : arrangement (?): In longitudinal lines => Pyrenacantha cordicula Villiers Random => Pyrenacantha laetevirens Sleumer 27 Locule : microtomography (?): Smooth => Pyrenacantha staudtii

S. Papillate-=>-pyrenacantha-sylvestris and . Moore, Tubercle apex : morphology (?): Not elaborated (more or less rounded or pointed) => Pyrenacantha capitata H.Perrier Capitate (Swollen head) => Pyrenacantha humblotii, Baill. ex Grandid.) Sleumer

, Endocarp : Presence of a keel (?): Yes => 46

, Shallow mound invagination : shape

. Spiny-=>-phytocrene-macrophylla,

, Endocarp : Apex structure (?): Horns => Phytocrene palmata Wall

, Pores =>, vol.49

, Endocarp: hairs (?): Yes => Pleurisanthes flava Sandwith No => 50

, Endocarp : Apex structure (?): Horns => Sarcostigma kleinii Wight & Arn

, Pores => Mappianthus iodoides Hand.-Mazz

, Bulge => Nothapodytes pittosporoides (Oliv.) Sleumer

, Locule : hairs (?): Yes => Lavigeria macrocarpa

, Endocarp wall cells : orientation (?): Periclinal OR Anticlinal => 52

. Isodiametric,

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Sarcostigma kleinii Wight & Arn

, Homogeneous => Iodes seguinii (H.Lév.) Rehder 37 Ridges : number reaching the base

, Tubercle apex : morphology (?): Not elaborated (more or less rounded or pointed) => Pyrenacantha glabrescens

. Engl,

. Capitate,

, Epicarp hair : type (?): Long and thin => Phytocrene oblonga Wall. Cluster of hairs => Phytocrene anomala Merr

, Endocarp : shape in lateral view (?): Elliptical => 73

=. Obovoid, . Phytocrene, and . Becc,

, Smooth => 74

, Papillate =>, vol.75

, Epicarp : indumentum type

=. Glabrous and A. Icacina-guessfeldtii,

, Pubescent =>, vol.76

=. Strigose, . Iodes, and . Blume,

:. Locule and . Microtomography, Smooth => Mappia longipes Lundell Papillate => Sarcostigma paniculata Pierre 53 Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Dendrobangia boliviana Rusby Homogeneous => Cassinopsis ilicifolia

, Yes => Miquelia assamica (Griff.) Mast. ex B.D.Jacks. No => Pittosporopsis kerrii Craib 55 Ridges : shape

, Fruit: gynophore

, Yes => Miquelia assamica (Griff.) Mast. ex B.D.Jacks. No => Hosiea japonica Makino 57 Fruit: gynophore

. Yes-=>-pyrenacantha and . Humblotii, Baill. ex Grandid.) Sleumer

, Ridges : secondary

, Yes => Pyrenacantha thomsoniana (Bail.) Byng & Utteridge No => Pyrenacantha macrocarpa (A. Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) Byng & Utteridge 59 Ridges : secondary

, Yes => Pyrenacantha soyauxii (Engl.) Byng & Utteridge No => Pyrenacantha macrocarpa (A. Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) Byng & Utteridge 60 Endocarp : width, p.81

, Locule : microtomography

, Smooth => Stachyanthus occidentalis (Keay & É. Miège) Boutique

=. Papillate,

, Endocarp : ridging pattern

, Reticulate =>, vol.82

, Diffuse =>, vol.83

, Epicarp : additionnal structure (?): None => 84

, Apex elongate => 85

, Cap at the apex inflated => Pyrenacantha gossweileri (Exell) Byng & Utteridge 64 Ridges : shape

, Rounded =>, vol.86

, Sharp =>, vol.87

. Angular-=>-alsodeiopsis-staudtii-engl,

, Endocarp : ridging pattern

, Reticulate =>, vol.88

=. Diffuse, . Miquelia, and . King,

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Iodes klaineana Pierre Homogeneous => Iodes kamerunensis Engl

, Ridges : number reaching the base (?): 2 => Iodes liberica Stapf 6 => Iodes africana Welw

, Ridges : secondary (?): Yes => Iodes philippinensis Merr

, Smooth => 90

. Papillate,

, Locule : microtomography

, Papillate => Pyrenacantha puberula Boutique 71 Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Pyrenacantha lebrunii Boutique No => Pyrenacantha acuminata Engl

, Papillae : shape

, Rounded => 92

. Large-=>-pyrenacantha-tropophila-labat, &. R. El-achkar, and . Rabev,

, Vertical ridges : number

. =>-phytocrene-bracteata-wall,

. =>-phytocrene-hirsuta-blume,

, Endocarp : Apex structure

, Absent =>, vol.93

, Horns => Desmostachys vogelii (Miers) Stapf Pores => Platea parvifolia Merr. & Chun Bulge => 94

, Papillae : shape (?): Rounded => Sarcostigma paniculata Pierre Large => Rhyticaryum macrocarpum Becc

, Smooth => 95

=. Papillate and . Iodes-cirrhosa-turcz,

, Endocarp : ridging pattern

, Diffuse => 97

, Endocarp : ridging pattern

=. Reticulate, . Rhyticaryum, and . Becc,

, Ridges : secondary (?): Yes => Phytocrene hirsuta Blume No => Phytocrene bracteata Wall

, Endocarp : ridging pattern

, Diffuse => 99

, Locule : microtomography

, Smooth =>, vol.100

, Papillate =>, vol.101

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Hosiea japonica Makino Homogeneous => Desmostachys oblongifolius (Engl.) Villiers 83 Ridges : secondary (?): Yes => Stachyanthus zenkeri Engl

, No => Desmostachys vogelii

, Fruit: gynophore

, No => Stachyanthus donisii (Boutique) Boutique

, Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Pyrenacantha kaurabassana Baill

, Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Miquelia caudata King No => 103

, Locule : microtomography

, Smooth => Desmostachys oblongifolius

, Papillate =>, vol.104

, Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Miquelia caudata King No => Alsodeiopsis mannii Oliv

, Epicarp : indumentum type

=. Pubescent and . Iodes-cirrhosa-turcz,

=. Strigose, . Iodes, and . Blume,

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Icacina trichantha Oliv

=. Homogeneous and A. Icacina-guessfeldtii,

, Ridges : secondary (?): Yes => Iodes balansae Gagnep

&. R. El-achkar and . Rabev, No => Iodes scandens (Becc.) Utteridge & Byng 92 Endocarp : shape in lateral view (?): Elliptical => Pyrenacantha ambrensis Labat

=. Globulose, . Pyrenacantha, . Labat, &. R. El-achkar, and . Rabev,

, Endocarp : Presence of a keel (?): Yes => 105

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => Desmostachys planchonianus Miers Homogeneous => Nothapodytes nimmoniana, J.Graham) Mabb

, Endocarp : Apex structure

, Horns => Icacina oliviformis (Poir.) J.Raynal Pores => Icacina mannii Oliv

, Areoles : freely ending ridgelets

, Yes => Hosiea sinensis (Oliv.) Hemsl. & E.H. Wilson Rare or No => Rhyticaryum macrocarpum Becc

, Endocarp: thicker than wide (?): Yes => Cassinopsis ciliata Baker No => 107

, Locule : microtomography (?): Smooth => Pyrenacantha cordicula Villiers Papillate => 108

, Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Pyrenacantha puberula Boutique No => Pyrenacantha sylvestris S.Moore 100 Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Pyrenacantha laetevirens Sleumer No => Pyrenacantha staudtii (Engl.) Engl

, Ridges : secondary

, Yes => Pyrenacantha anhydathoda (Villiers) Byng & Utteridge No => 109

, Endocarp : ridging pattern (?): Diffuse => Pyrenacantha vogeliana Baill

, Endocarp wall : layers (?): Divided into distinctive units => 110

, Homogeneous => Natsiatum herpeticum Buch.-Ham. ex Arn

, Endocarp : ridging pattern

=. Diffuse, . Miquelia, and . King,

, Epicarp : indumentum type

=. Glabrous and J. Mappia-racemosa,

, Endocarp : shape in transverse section

, Lenticular => Mappia multiflora Lundell Triangular => Dendrobangia boliviana Rusby 107 Endocarp : Apex structure (?): Absent => Rhyticaryum oleraceum Becc

=. Pores, . Rhyticaryum, and . Becc,

, Endocarp : Apex structure (?): Absent => Pyrenacantha lebrunii Boutique Pores => Miquelia celebica Blume

, Papillae : shape

, Rounded =>, vol.112

. Large-=>-pyrenacantha-rakotozafyi-labat, &. R. El-achkar, and . Rabev,

, Endocarp : Apex structure (?): Absent => Rhyticaryum fasciculatum Becc

G. Pores-=>-rhyticaryum-elegans and . Schellenb,

, Fruit: gynophore (?): Yes => Miquelia caudata King No => 113

, Endocarp : Apex structure (?): Absent => Pyrenacantha longirostrata Villiers Horns => Miquelia assamica

, Papillae : shape

R. P. ,

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, Iodes seguinii (H.Lév.) Rehder Abbé Cavalerie 3932, Chine, 1913.

, Ovary locule/ Plurilocular; Unilocular, 20 Pollen ornamentation/ Baculate; Clavate; Echinate; Gemmate; Granulate; Reticulate

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, Endocarp: shape in transverse section -(0) Elliptical (1) Lenticular (2)Globulose (3)Triangular

, Endocarp: apex structure

, Endocarp: ridging pattern -(0)Diffuse (1)Reticulate (2)Striate

, Pit: shape -(0) Mainly circular (1)Occasionally elongate (2)Primarily elongate 12 Endocarp surface: vascularisation -(0)Resting on ridges (1)Resting between ridges mounds

. Endocarp and . Strand, , p.0

, Locul: hairs -(0)Yes

, Tubercle: morphology -(0)Conical (1)Peg shaped (2)Spiny (3)Cylindrical (4)Elongateflattened (5)Shallow mound not protrude beyond wall (6) parallel sided protuberances 19 Tubercle apex: morphology -(0)Capitate Swollen head

, Papillae: shape -(0)Rounded (1)Sessile rounded (2)Large

, Endocarp wall: layers -(0)Divided into distinctive layers (1)Homogeneous

, Endocarp wall cells: orientation -(0)Anticlinal (1)Periclinal (2)Isodiametric

. Locule, , p.0

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