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Sur le problème à deux corps et le rayonnement gravitationnel en théories scalaire-tenseur et Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton

Abstract : With the birth of "gravitational wave astronomy" comes the opportunity to test general relativity and its alternatives in a strong field regime that had never been observed so far: that of the coalescence of a compact binary sytem. This thesis studies the problem of motion and gravitational radiation from such systems in modified gravities, by adapting some of the key analytical tools that were first developed in the context of general relativity. First, we show how to widen the "effective-one-body" (EOB) formalism to a large class of modified gravities, including, e.g., scalar-tensor theories. In the latter, the gravitational interaction is described by supplementing general relativity with a (massless) scalar degree of freedom. The corresponding two-body lagrangian being known at post-post-keplerian order, we build an associated EOB hamiltonian, which describes the motion of a test particle orbiting in effective external fields. This enables to simplify and resum the two-body dynamics; and hence, to explore the strong-field regime near merger. We then "tackle", for the first time, the analytical description of "hairy" binary black hole systems, and obtain their (EOB) gravitational waveform counterparts in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, which generalize scalar-tensor theories by means of a (massless) vector field. To that end, we derive the two-body lagrangian at post-keplerian order as well as the energy flux radiated at infinity at quadrupolar order. As in general relativity, our developments rely on the phenomenological description of the black hole’s trajectories as worldlines of point particles that are, in turn, described by a "skeleton" action generalizing that of general relativity. Finally, we develop a formalism based on Katz’ "superpotentials" to define the mass (as a nœther charge) of a black hole that is endowed with vector and scalar "hair". We then deduce the first law of thermodynamics, which is particularly suitable to describe its readjustments when interacting with a faraway companion. Black hole thermodynamics is lastly shown to be a powerful tool to interpret and discuss the scope of their "skeletonization".
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Félix-Louis Julié. Sur le problème à deux corps et le rayonnement gravitationnel en théories scalaire-tenseur et Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton. Physique [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC131⟩. ⟨tel-02366011⟩

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