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Stratégies d'activations multiples d'espaceurs auto-immolables

Abstract : Originally introduced by Katzenellenbogen in 1981 , self-immolative spacers are defined as covalent assemblies that are able to correlate cleavage of two chemical bonds. First, the protecting group is cleaved, generating an intermediary which spontaneously leads to the rupture of the bond between the spacer and the released molecule (bioactive compound for instance). Katzenellenbogen planned that self-immolative spacers could allow to overcome limitations of classic therapies (especially direct administration of drugs) and constitute a novel and efficient alternative to actual prodrug strategies. Effectively, spacers have opened many possibilities in this field, but also in other domains (like analytical chemistry, material sciences, …) which will be presented in this manuscript.We also took care to detail self-immolation mechanisms (the step leading to the release of the leaving group from the intermediary): indeed, the mechanism is the most important factor of the spacer, determining its properties (kinetic of the process, chemical links allowed). Therefore, it is crucial to determine advantages and drawbacks of each mechanism in order to permit a rational choice of the spacer depending on the application we choose.Our work consisted to complete known kinetic data, leading us to acquire an overview of existing spacers.Self-immolative spacers have been introduced to overcome limits of actual strategies, but they are not always able to answer particular problems (sensitivity and selectivity of their triggering events principally): this leads us to propose a new generation of spacers capable of resolving these problematics.Our researches permitted us to compare kinetic of cyclizing spacers and to confirm that elimination based spacers show a larger scope for potential uses.Starting from this, we developed two series of derivatives using this mechanism: - Bi-triggered anilines: releasing the leaving group after two specific stimuli (only one for reported spacers actually). We are convinced that this new class of spacers can constitute a real innovation for selective treatments. - Three-branched phenol: able to release the compound by three different ways of elimination. This property can increase drastically the sensitivity of the spacer for its activation pathway, considering triggers are three-time more numerous. Even if the compound has not been obtained, significant results in its synthesis have been observed: these results on this interesting project leading us to propose new synthetic strategies in order to obtain this ultra-sensitive compound.
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Steve Huvelle. Stratégies d'activations multiples d'espaceurs auto-immolables. Chimie organique. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLET033⟩. ⟨tel-02365236⟩

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