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Vers une meilleure description des interfaces entre biominéraux et milieux biologiques par une approche combinée théorique et expérimentale.

Abstract : Biominerals are all the minerals produced by living organisms. They are essential materials, present in almost all living species. Nevertheless,the structural, chemical properties and, formation mechanisms and the evolution of these materials are still heavily debated. This is due in particular to thedifficulties of experimentally studying chemical species evolving in biologicalenvironments. Although, equally complex, a theoretical approach at the molecular level can help in the characterization of these biological materialsand in particular the characterization of their interfaces formed with the surrounding biological media. This is essential for a better understandingof the formation and evolution of these minerals.Calcium oxalates are essential biominerals that are very common in the living world. They constitute the main crystalline speciesencountered in kidney stones where they can exist in three phases possessing different degrees of hydration. In this, thesis we carried outsimulations to predict the IR and NMR spectroscopic properties of these three phases. Thsi enabled us to obtain specificsignature of each polyhydrate, and thus makes it possible to obtain a signature specific to each of them, thus helpingthe identification of these phases from the experimentally spectra obtained.Calcium phosphates are part of the bio/biological minerals. They make up the major part of the bone mineral of mammals. This mineral is in the form of nanoparticles havinga crystalline core of hydroxyapatite and a hydrated and disordered surface layer.During this thesis we were interested in these two components. Concerning the crystalline core of the particles, we studied in particularthe case of carbonate substitutions because of its predominant substitution in biological apatites. By combining this work with solid state NMR experimentswe can propose a precise localization of these substituents within the hydroxyapatite crystalline cell.The disordered surface layer is still very poorly understood and many structural models are proposed in the literature to describe it. We haveconsidered a number of them for which we have modeled the NMR properties which were then confronted with experimental results. The comparaisonmade it possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypotheses.
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Ivan Petit. Vers une meilleure description des interfaces entre biominéraux et milieux biologiques par une approche combinée théorique et expérimentale.. Matériaux. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLET031⟩. ⟨tel-02365218⟩



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