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Hydraulique urbaine, hydraulique oasienne : archéologie d'une ville médiévale des marges sahariennes du Maroc : hydro-histoire de Sidjilmãsa et de la plaine du Tãfilãlt

Abstract : Water management is a central aspect of the secular sustainability of Saharan oases and their economic dynamics. In this matter, it is important to distinguish between traditional systems and "modern" systems that have widely changed the oasian ecosystem. The oasis of Tāfīlālt (Morocco), seat of the emirate of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa and "port" of the caravan trade between the eighth and fifteenth century, is an excellent observatory of human adaptation in an arid environment. In order to have all the necessary data for our reflection on the hydraulics of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa, we have constituted a large corpus of documents, resulting from the analysis of the scientific literature around the general theme of water, focused mainly on archaeological studies and mobilization techniques. Following a contextualization of the archaeological site of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in its oasis environment and its written documentation since the Middle Age, we establish a report of the hydraulic remains discovered since 2012 by the french-moroccan mission. Observable over all the excavation areas, these structures can be associated with the capture, supply or storage of water, as well as the disposal of wastewater. The analysis and the technical description of these remains then their insertion in a general stratigraphic context, allow us, by also mobilizing the data of the corpus, to propose functional hypotheses and an evolution of hydraulic practices in medieval Sid̲j̲ilmāsa. In the final part of the thesis, we deal in particular with the symbolic representation of water in Sid̲j̲ilmāsa conveyed since the Middle Age and changes in the way of supply of local populations over time, based on the archaeological considerations presented during all this research work and on our current observations, in order to provide an essay of hydrohistory in Tāfīlālt.
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Thomas Soubira. Hydraulique urbaine, hydraulique oasienne : archéologie d'une ville médiévale des marges sahariennes du Maroc : hydro-histoire de Sidjilmãsa et de la plaine du Tãfilãlt. Histoire. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU20007⟩. ⟨tel-02364956⟩

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