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Effluents hospitaliers : sources de pollution en antibiotiques et de résistances bacériennes potentiellement transmissibles via un biofilm ? : Microbiologie

Abstract : The presence of pharmaceutical compounds in waste water favors the emergence and the spreading of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. The hospital effluents could be involved gathering antibiotics and multiresistant bacteria. The aim of this work is to characterize the hospital effluents of a teaching hospital measuring simultaneously the concentrations of antibiotics (fluoroquinolones and imipenem) and the diversity of the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics within hospital effluent biofilms.The antibiotics concentrations were measured by liquid-phase chromatography - mass spectrometry via a passive sampling during 15 days. The measured environmental concentrations were 2.08 ± 0.88μg/L (ciprofloxacin), 101.06 ± 18.47 μg/L (ofloxacine), 6.43 ± 0.56 μg/L (norfloxacine). Imipenem was not detected. Compared with the data of hospital consumption during the same period, the predicted estimated concentrations are 5.84±1.78µg/L(ciprofloxacin), 11.22 ± 1.09µg/L (ofloxacin), 7.68 ± 3.7µg/L, 7.68 ± 3.7μg/L (norfloxacin) and 3.61 ± 0.24ug/L (imipenem). The ecotoxicological risk was confirmed for the ciprofloxacin and the ofloxacin (hazard quotient > 1).In parallel, fluoroquinolones (n=115) and carbapenem (n=38) resistant bacteria were isolated from hospital effluent biofilm. Sixty % of isolates, mainly composed by Gram negative bacilli in particular Aeromona spp and Klebsiella spp, are resistant to several antibiotics among which some are exclusively used at the hospital. The majority of these strains have mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids harboring imipenem or fluoroquinolones resistances.The presences of both antibiotics resistant bacteria harboring mobile genetic elements in connection with these resistances and low antibiotics concentrations make the hospital effluent a convenient place for the transfer of resistance between the hospital and the environment.
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Jérôme Ory. Effluents hospitaliers : sources de pollution en antibiotiques et de résistances bacériennes potentiellement transmissibles via un biofilm ? : Microbiologie. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC111⟩. ⟨tel-02363339⟩

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