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Exposition de la peau aux produits chimiques : méthodologie et évaluation de la décontamination par la terre de foulon

Abstract : Cutaneous exposure to contaminants chemicals after criminal or accidental release enforces a rapid and efficient decontamination to save lives and avoid cross contamination. A bibilographic exploration of this work identifies toxic chemical (chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals), raw and synthetic decontaminants and their application methods applied in emergency. The aim of this study focuses on a decontamination tool qualification, the fuller’s earth (FE), simple formulated, easy to apply in emergency by civil Security services (fire fighter brigades). The work performed includes :The chemical and structural characterization of the powder of fuller’earth NBC-Sys , that lead to identify the palygorskite as main component, The formulation of dispersed systems and their physico chemical characterization (granulometry, zêta potentiel) in concentrated or diluted medium. The adsorption capacity of the FE and formulations for a contaminant model, the 4-cyanophenol, to assess decontamination in vitro, in aqueous medium, ex vivo on cutaneous explant.4-CP adsorption in aqueous solutions (10, 100 et 500 mg/L-1) is rapid (5-15min), when contact with FE, vary with the ratio FE/ 4-CP, to reach a plateau phase (saturation) between 45 and 60 minutes, and an steady state between 60 and 120 min. FE suspensions are more efficient (90%) than powder (70%) and water (60%) in the same experimental conditions. L’évaluation de la terre de foulon et ses formulations sur les paramètres physiologiques de la peau (perte insensible en eau et conductance) in vivo chez l’homme ne montre pas d’altération de la fonction barrière cutanée. FE and its suspensions were assessed on physiological skin parameters (Transepidermal water loss and conductance) in vivo in a human study and exhibit no alteration on the skin barrier function. Results obtained is a first step towards a reference (that actually don’t exist) including a chemical decontamination method
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Annick Roul. Exposition de la peau aux produits chimiques : méthodologie et évaluation de la décontamination par la terre de foulon. Ingénierie biomédicale. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1134⟩. ⟨tel-02362580⟩

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