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Propriétés antifongiques de bactéries lactiques isolées de laits crus

Abstract : Fermented dairy products such as yogurt, fermented milks and fresh cheeses are of great importance in the French economy. The stability of these products and export opportunities are however limited by frequent fungal spoilages. In addition, the increase of fungal resistances to Chemical preservatives and the strong consumer demand for products deprived of Chemical additives are pushing manufacturers to reduce the quantities of added Chemical preservatives in these products. In this context, it is necessary to develop alternatives to classical food preservation methods, such as biopreservation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), used for millennia for diverse food fermentations, and generally recognized as safe for human health, can potentially be used for biopreservation. In order to select 1 or 2 LAB strains with antifungal activity capable to compete in fermented dairy products such as yogurt, a collection of antifungal LAB was first created. This was done by screening colonies isolated from cow, goat and ewe raw milk samples over a one-year period. This screening step, targeted against 4 fungi found in contaminated dairy products, resulted in the isolation of 1235 antifungal colonies. The biodiversity of the isolated antifungal LAB was then determined along with that of the fungi found in the different raw milks, in order to observe a possible correlation between the presence of fungi and the expression of antifungal activities. The influence of milk origin, sampling period, isolation medium and targeted fungus on the percentage of isolated active colonies was highlighted and clearly showed that both cow and goat milks were reservoirs of antifungal LAB. Among the targeted fungi, P. expansum was more easily inhibited, and the majority of colonies were isolated during the third sampling period, mainly on MRS-based media. The majority of identified antifungal LAB belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, mainly to the Lb. casei group. Eleven isolates, including 10 belonging to the Lb. casei group, were selected from these lactobacilli, according to their activity level and action spectrum in MRS medium. Some of their technological properties were characterized for their potential use as protective cultures in fermented dairy products and their antifungal activity was tested in milk and yogurt. To do this, 6 fungal contaminants commonly encountered in yogurt spoilage were used. A particular strain, Lb. harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np, showed a strong antifungal activity in yogurt. Additional experiments showed that the variation of technological parameters (presence or absence of sugar, fermentation time) had no influence on the antifungal activity of this strain. This is the first time that an antifungal potential has been observed for Lb. harbinensis, a species isolated for the first time in 2005 from a fermented vegetable product. Because of its effectiveness in yogurt, Lb. harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np is a promising strain for biopreservation of fermented dairy product(s).
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Emilie Delavenne. Propriétés antifongiques de bactéries lactiques isolées de laits crus. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BRES0085⟩. ⟨tel-02358823⟩

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