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Nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques pour le traitement des affections articulaires chez le cheval

Abstract : Articular cartilage is a tissue with low intrinsic repair abilities. Therefore, repeated traumas lead to cartilage degradation and ultimately, to the emergence of osteoarthritis (OA). Current therapies aim to reduce pain, inflammation and to prevent the progression of OA. Thus, treatment of equine chondral lesions is of major importance since locomotor disorders are the main causes of poor performance and early retirement of the athlete horses. In addition, the horse is an animal model with the most human-like articular cartilage and, therefore, represents the best relevant model to study human chondral lesions and arthropathies. In this context, our study focused on developing new strategies for the treatment of chondral lesions based on the chondrogenic differentiation of equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to produce an in vitro neo-synthetized cartilaginous substitute, which could be implantable in the chondral lesion site. Thus, we first isolated and characterized equine MSC derived from bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord blood (UCB). Then, we have differentiated MSC by culturing them for 14 days in hypoxia or normoxia, in a biomaterial (types I / III collagen sponges), in the presence of BMP-2 and TGF-β1 and siRNA targeting type I collagen and HtrA1, two atypical hyaline cartilage molecules overexpressed in OA. Although this protocol allowed us to obtain a cartilaginous substitute composed of large amounts of hyaline cartilage markers such as type II collagen and aggrecan, the presence of type I collagen persisted. We therefore tried to optimize the protocol by extending the culture time, using TGF-β3, and modifying the RNA-interference strategy. We have concluded on the beneficial effect of the lengthening of the culture to 28 days and the effectiveness of the chondrogenic factors initially used. Nevertheless, the RNA-interference strategy still remains perfectible. Finally, we compared the quality of the neo-synthetized cartilaginous substitute according to the source of MSC used. BM-MSC seem to be the most suitable, but the protocol we used is probably not the most effective for inducing UCB-MSC differentiation. In a complementary part, although these results are very preliminary, we have shown that the MSC secretome could be a tremendous tool to improve current therapies of chondral lesions. Overall, the results obtained make it possible to look ahead with optimism, in order to obtain future efficient cartilage tissue engineering therapies, both in equine and human medicines.
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Romain Contentin. Nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques pour le traitement des affections articulaires chez le cheval. Rhumatologie et système ostéo-articulaire. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC417⟩. ⟨tel-02357952⟩

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