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Nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques des affections articulaires du cheval : évaluation du potentiel thérapeutique des chondrocytes autologues et des cellules souches de cordon ombilical (sang et gelée de Wharton) : vers l'industrialisation de cellules médicaments.

Abstract : Articular cartilage disorders, such as focal defects and osteoarthritis, are the main causes of decreased performance or early retirement of sport- and racehorses. Thus, cartilage disorders represent a major veterinary issue in the equine industry, due to significant financial losses. Poor intrinsic cartilage repair properties and the absence of long- term therapy for cartilage defects lead to the development and use of new generation therapies such as autologous chondrocytes implantation. In this context, our study aimed to compare different cell types for the in vitro cartilage generation, in order to implant the biological substitute to treat cartilage defects in the horse. A therapeutic strategy initially developed in human medicine, the autologous chondrocytes transplantation, always represents a "gold standard" in cartilage tissue engineering. In the present study, after developing a new generation of cartilaginous substitute of high biological quality, composed of equine articular chondrocytes, technical and biological limits inherent to the cell type persist. Thus, we have used alternative cell types such as neonatal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) from umbilical cord, such as umbilical cord blood MSC (UCB-MSCs) and umbilical cord matrix or Wharton jelly MSCs (UCM- MSCs). These MSCs sources could represent a therapeutic advantage due to their non-invasive isolation, their high cell proliferation and their ability to differentiate into chondrocytes. Nevertheless, it is essential to define the best therapeutic candidate between these two MSCs sources, to obtain an optimal quality for the neocartilaginous substitute. Our data highlighted important differences in the chondrogenesis process of these two neonatal MSCs sources, allowing us to consider UCB-MSCs as the best therapeutic candidate for equine cartilage tissue engineering. This work allows a better understanding of the chondrocyte and MSCs biology. Moreover, this work leads the way to setting-up future clinical trials in the horse, in order to treat articular defects of this large animal model.
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Rodolphe Rakic. Nouvelles stratégies thérapeutiques des affections articulaires du cheval : évaluation du potentiel thérapeutique des chondrocytes autologues et des cellules souches de cordon ombilical (sang et gelée de Wharton) : vers l'industrialisation de cellules médicaments.. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMC406⟩. ⟨tel-02357951⟩

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