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Theses

De la réalisation d'une interface cerveau-ordinateur pour une réalité virtuelle accessible au grand public

Abstract : In spite of ongoing developments in the conception of electroencephalographic (EEG) headsets and brain signal analysis, the actual use of an EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is still restricted to research settings. On the other hand, BCI technology candidates as a good complement to virtual reality as it may diminish the distance between the user and his/her avatar. A BCI can accomplish this by circumventing the usual muscular pathway between the brain and the machine, thus enhancing the immersion feeling in VR applications. Moreover, a BCI provides valuable information on the mental state of the user, such as concentration and attention for the task at hand and for the virtual objects of interest. In this thesis, we study the coupling of BCI and VR technology, a human-machine interface that is potentially ubiquitous, in particular for gaming. We focus on the use of EEG-based BCI with occasional visual stimulation, i.e., BCIs based on the detection of the P300, a positive evoked potential appearing in the EEG 250 to 600 ms after the presentation of a stimulus. We investigate the use of such a BCI to interact with VR environments obtained using a mobile head-mounted display based on an ordinary smartphone, material suiting well the general public.The fusion of BCI technology with VR faces technical, experimental and conceptual limitations. Indeed, the integration of BCI with a mobile head-mounted display is technically burdensome and has not been fully validated. The factors impacting the performance of the BCI in VR remains still unknown. Also, unknown are the physiological characteristics of the brain responses to VR stimuli as compared to the same stimuli displayed on a PC screen. Finally, both BCI and VR technologies are limited, and these limitations sometimes appears contradictory. For example, the EEG is perturbed by the user’s movements while s/he is interacting with the virtual environment, but this movement may be an essential aspect of the VR experience. Thus, it is necessary to operate a synthesis of the existing design recommendations for BCI and VR technologies from the perspective of a mixed BCI+VR application.In this work, we presents three contributions: a technical implementation of a BCI+VR system, paving the way for a general public use; an analysis of its performance and an analysis of the physiological differences produced by VR stimuli as compared to the same stimuli on a PC by means of two experimental campaigns carried out on 33 subjects; a synthesis of the recommendations to adapt the application design to BCI and VR.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 17, 2019 - 11:24:08 AM
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Grégoire Cattan. De la réalisation d'une interface cerveau-ordinateur pour une réalité virtuelle accessible au grand public. Interface homme-machine [cs.HC]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAS007⟩. ⟨tel-02357203v2⟩

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