Caractérisation, destruction et recyclage des déchets amiantés

Abstract : To answer the ecological and economic problems of the treatment of Materials Containing Asbestos (MCA), a complete process allowing to handle in an optimal way these waste was proposed. For that purpose, three types of waste were analyzed by several complementary techniques of characterization (X-rays diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, infrared and NMR spectroscopy). These analyses allowed the identification of the present various phases within waste. This identification is necessary, because it allows to adapt in the optimal way for the destruction of the waste. The first stage of the process is a treatment in temperature of the MCA in a solution of nitric acid leading to the dissolution of the matrix of the waste and the denaturation of the fibers of chrysotile which are present in 95 % of MCA. Two phases are then got back at the end of this treatment: a solid phase of pure silica and a liquid phase containing, in particular, calcium, magnesium and iron ions. If previous waste contains fibers of amphibole type (5 % of the MCA) they are then treated through a hydrothermal process in an autoclave containing a solution of soda. This stage leads to the complete dissolution of the waste. The basic solution containing some silicon is so got back. Various ways of valuations were then developed. The present ions in the acid solution are chemically sorted out by a selective precipitation of hydroxides. Another way consists in synthesizing a zeolite from the pure silica coming from the acid treatment and from the basic solution after hydrothermal treatment. The isotherms of adsorption of this synthesized zeolite were established to determine its capacity of adsorption of certain polluting metallic cations. To finish, a fundamental study was led on the nanotubes of silica obtained after the acid treatment of pure asbestos fibers and diverse applications of these nanotubes of silica were evoked.
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Gaël Talbi. Caractérisation, destruction et recyclage des déchets amiantés. Matériaux. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTS135⟩. ⟨tel-02356560⟩

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