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Synthèse de polyesters fluorés pour la formulation de nanocapsules comme agents de contraste ultrasonores

Abstract : We have synthesized polymers with fluorinated end chains to formulate nanocapsules as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) for tumor imaging. These nanocapsules are composed of a core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), a biocompatible and echogenic perfluorinated liquid, and a polymeric shell made of three blocks of different affinities. The hydrophilic block of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at the surface of the nanocapsules allows increasing their circulation time in the blood and promoting their accumulation into tumors by the enhanced permeation and retention effect. The hydrophobic block of polylactide (PLA) allows generating a degradable shell with higher stability as compared to the surfactant- and lipid-based membranes of commercialized UCAs. Finally, the fluorinated block favors the wetting of the polymer around the perfluorinated liquid and improves the nanocapsules echogenicity. Two different strategies have been developed to introduce this fluorinated part. The first one consisted in synthesizing a PLA terminated by a short linear fluorinated chain (from C3F7 to C13F27) and mixing it with a PLA-PEG diblock polymer to formulate the nanocapsules. The encapsulation efficiency of PFOB was found to increase with the fluorinated chain length up to C8F17. The second strategy consisted in synthesizing directly a triblock polymer composed of the three parts (PEG, PLA and fluorinated) on the same chain, the fluorinated part consisting of 4 to 15 pendant C8F17 chains (with a comb-like structure). Interfacial tension measurements showed that these triblock polymers adsorb at the PFOB/organic solvent interface and encapsulate PFOB more efficiently than non-fluorinated PLA-PEG. The capsules morphology was strongly influenced by the number of fluorinated chains and the amount of polymer used for formulation. Formulation with a high quantity of the polymer containing 15 fluorinated pendants thus favored the formation of nanocapsules with several PFOB cores. Decreasing the fluorinated polymer quantity then allowed producing capsules with a single core, a thin shell, and a slightly ellipsoidal shape. These capsules were more efficient ultrasound scatterers than non-fluorinated PLA-PEG capsules. While the presence of PEG chains considerably attenuates the capsules acoustic response, addition of fluorinated chains seems to counterbalance this effect. Such improvement arises from several contributions: a higher encapsulated PFOB content, a higher density due to the presence of fluorinated chains, and a lower shell thickness. Furthermore, the fluorinated polymers and their degradation products did not induce any in vitro cytotoxicity as compared to their non-fluorinated analogues. These nanocapsules therefore appear as promising UCAs for tumor imaging.
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Sophie Houvenagel. Synthèse de polyesters fluorés pour la formulation de nanocapsules comme agents de contraste ultrasonores. Pharmacie galénique. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS347⟩. ⟨tel-02354905⟩

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