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Caractérisation des déterminants génétiques et moléculaires liés à la résistance au dépérissement bactérien chez l'abricotier et analyse des risques associés

Abstract : Within the genus Prunus, that contains highly valuable species, apricot (Prunusarmeniaca L.) is an emblematic Mediterranean crop. But apricot cultivation is constrainedby many biotic stresses, among which bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae(Psy) is particularly severe and can lead to the death of the trees in regions with humidand cold winters. Differences of susceptibilities have been observed between cultivars inorchards and create opportunities for disease management through genetic improvement.This thesis aimed to (i) identify genetic determinants linked to partial resistance to thebacterium and to (ii) study a factorial interaction design between both diversities of theplant and the pathogen (GxG interaction) in order to assess resistance genericity anddurability. With regard to the first objective, two complementary approaches were used :QRL (Quantitative Resistance Loci) mapping over four biparental progenies, amongwhich three were obtained with a cross involving a common genitor, and a genome-wideassociation study on a core-collection. The phenotypic data mobilized in this work rely onsymptoms issued from controlled inoculations and on mortality notations followingnatural infections in the orchard. These approaches led to the detection of 22 QRLs amongwhich only 2 QRLs, located on chromosomes 6 and 7, co-localized between the twomethods. Two main regions detected in the association study, over the chromosomes 5and 6, appeared to be in linkage disequilibrium and controlled 26 and 43% of the variationof the symptoms. A complementarity between two mechanisms, one that involves blockingthe infection of Psy and the other that limits bacterial mobility in the tissues has beenrevealed through the detection of QRLs over chromosomes 3, 6, 8 for one mechanism and1,4, 6 for the other, respectively. The second objective was fulfilled with a study of afactorial interaction design between 20 apricot accessions and 9 Psy strains, which weresampled according to the previous knowledge of the disease epidemiology in the orchard.Statistical analyses of phenotypic data obtained both from the orchard and a laboratorytest showed a clear predominance of the strain effect on symptom variability and a weakimportance of the GxG interaction factor. This last result highlighted a potentialgenericity of the resistance factors and favorable perspectives of durability in the orchard.The results issued from this thesis contribute to a better understanding of the mechanismsunderlying partial resistance of apricot to bacterial canker. Moreover, it provide markersand haplotypes of interest which could be mobilized in breeding programs.
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Mariem Omrani. Caractérisation des déterminants génétiques et moléculaires liés à la résistance au dépérissement bactérien chez l'abricotier et analyse des risques associés. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0698⟩. ⟨tel-02354903⟩

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