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Conception et réalisation, par fabrication additive, de matériaux cellulaires architecturés

Abstract : The "numerical materials" approach, developed at CEA Le Ripaut, consists to numerically optimize a structure, by using calculation codes that allow to realize numerical experiments, in order to answer, as precisely as possible, to a set of specifications. The manufacturing of these optimized structures, whose shapes can be complex, is sometimes not feasible with current manufacturing processes. However, the rapid progress of 3D printing now seems to be able to concretize this approach. The aim of this thesis is to study this manufacturing feasibility, through a concrete application: the optimization of the volumetric receivers of Concentrated Solar Power Plants (CSP). Currently, the design of these silicon carbide (SiC) receptors is restricted by the existing manufacturing techniques, and their morphologies are therefore mainly limited to foams or parallel channels. However, this type of structure does not allow to exploit all the 3D character proposed by the receivers, due in particular to a heterogeneous absorption of solar radiation in the volume. In this work, in order to find the distribution of the most homogeneous absorption possible in the whole volume, many structures with various shapes are generated virtually. A simulation of the solar irradiance received is carried out on all these structures, thanks to a calculation code developed especially for this application, thus allowing to choose three of them, respondents at best to the criteria of the specifications. These potentially optimized structures were then manufactured in SiC by 3D printing, by a binder jetting process. They were then tested on an experimental test bench of the PROMES laboratory, reproducing the conditions of a CSP. Results showed that these structures, where their shapes are totally different from foams or parallel channels, are able to produce a maximum air temperature of 860°C at the output of the receiver, and with efficiencies close to 0.65. Finally, a conducto-radiative coupled thermal computational code, improved during this work, made it possible to analyze these experimental results and will be used for the future work of optimization of the geometry of a receiver.
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Cyprien Heisel. Conception et réalisation, par fabrication additive, de matériaux cellulaires architecturés. Matériaux. Université de Limoges, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIMO0046⟩. ⟨tel-02347581⟩

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