Nanoparticules d'or à couronne polymère modulable : synthèse, interactions avec les systèmes biologiques et propriétés de radiosensibilisation

Abstract : These past twenty years, there has been a great increase in the number of studies concerning the use of nanoparticles for medical applications, especially for cancer treatment. In particular, radiosensitizing effects of metal nanoparticles have been studied a lot in radiotherapy, in order to reduce the side effects created by the irradiation of healthy tissues surrounding the tumor. In this work, we focused on polymer-grafted gold nanoparticles. The polymer corona both ensured a great stability of the objects and allowed to change their physico-chemical properties, in order to study their impact on the nanoparticles behavior. We used polymethacrylates which were obtained through controlled radical polymerization and acted as ligands during the gold nanoparticles synthesis. A library of nano-objects with different properties was established by varying both molar mass and chemical nature of (co)polymers. Thorough characterization, including by small-angle radiation scattering, revealed similar structures for all synthesized objects. Grafting of one chemotherapy agent, doxorubicin, and two proteins was also performed on polymer ligands. Interactions between these various nanoparticles and biological systems were studied in detail. Special attention was given to the impact of polymer corona properties. Four aspects were examined: colloidal stability in biological media, ability to diffuse inside the extracellular matrix, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity. All studied ligands ensured a great stability. Regarding the other aspects, systematic comparison of the results obtained for the whole library highlighted a strong impact of the ligands nature, especially the presence of positive charges or hydrophobic segments. We have also shown that grafted doxorubicin and protein kept their toxic and targeting properties respectively. Lastly, the prospect of using these nanoparticles for radiosensitization led us to study their behavior under radiations. When irradiated, their structure was found stable. Combining them with radioiodine (internal radiotherapy) showed a great radiosensitizing effect, both in vitro and in vivo, but experiments with protontherapy (external radiotherapy) revealed different behaviors depending on the type of radiations. We also investigated the use of particle-induced X-ray emission to detect nanoparticles in situ, during protontherapy treatment.
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Marine Le Goas. Nanoparticules d'or à couronne polymère modulable : synthèse, interactions avec les systèmes biologiques et propriétés de radiosensibilisation. Matériaux. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS163⟩. ⟨tel-02341658⟩

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