, /105/EC (2008) Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy, pp.1-17

, /39/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy, Official Journal of the European Communities, pp.1-17, 2013.

. Afnor, Qualité de l'eau : Protocole d'évaluation initiale des performances d'une méthode dans un laboratoire, pp.90-210, 2009.

L. Ahrens, A. Daneshvar, A. E. Lau, and J. Kreuger, Characterization of five passive sampling devices for monitoring of pesticides in water, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1405, pp.1-11, 2015.

I. J. Allan, B. Vrana, R. Greenwood, G. A. Mills, J. Knutsson et al., Strategic monitoring for the European Water Framework Directive, TrAC -Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.25, issue.7, pp.704-715, 2006.

D. A. Alvarez, Development of an integrative sampling device for hydrophilic organic contaminants in aquatic environments, 1999.

D. A. Alvarez, J. N. Huckins, J. D. Petty, T. Jones-lepp, F. Stuer-lauridsen et al., Chapter 8 Tool for monitoring hydrophilic contaminants in water: polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), pp.171-197, 2007.

D. A. Alvarez, J. D. Petty, J. N. Huckins, T. L. Jones-lepp, D. T. Getting et al.,

, Development of a passive, in situ, integrative sampler for hydrophilic organic contaminants in aquatic environments, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.23, issue.7, pp.1640-1648

D. A. Alvarez, P. E. Stackelberg, J. D. Petty, J. N. Huckins, E. T. Furlong et al., , 2005.

E. D. Amato, A. Covaci, R. M. Town, J. Hereijgers, B. Bellekens et al., A novel active-passive sampling approach for measuring timeaveraged concentrations of pollutants in water, Chemosphere, vol.209, pp.363-372, 2018.

R. Amdany, L. Chimuka, and E. Cukrowska, Determination of naproxen, ibuprofen and triclosan in wastewater using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS): A laboratory calibration and field application, Water SA, vol.40, issue.3, pp.407-414, 2014.

Y. Aminot, K. Le-menach, P. Pardon, H. Etcheber, and H. Budzinski, Inputs and seasonal removal of pharmaceuticals in the estuarine Garonne River, Marine Chemistry, vol.185, pp.3-11, 2016.

A. Arditsoglou and D. Voutsa, , 2008.

D. Ashton, M. Hilton, and K. V. Thomas, Investigating the environmental transport of human pharmaceuticals to streams in the United Kingdom, Science of the Total Environment, vol.333, issue.1-3, pp.167-184, 2004.

A. Asperger, J. Efer, T. Koal, and W. Engewald, , 2002.

E. Aubertheau, T. Stalder, L. Mondamert, M. C. Ploy, C. Dagot et al., Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge on the contamination of river biofilms by pharmaceuticals and antibiotic resistance, Science of the Total Environment, vol.579, pp.1387-1398, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01634866

S. Babic, A. J. Horvat, D. Pavlovic, and M. Kastelan-macan, Determination of pKa values of active pharmaceutical ingredients, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.26, issue.11, pp.1043-1061, 2007.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud et al., Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe, Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, vol.108, issue.7, pp.4-5, 2003.

R. M. Baena-nogueras, E. Gonzalez-mazo, and P. A. Lara-martin, Degradation kinetics of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface waters: photolysis vs biodegradation, Science of the Total Environment, vol.590, pp.643-654, 2017.

E. Bailly, Y. Levi, and S. Karolak, Calibration and field evaluation of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) for monitoring pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater, Environmental Pollution, vol.174, pp.100-105, 2013.

S. Barrek, C. Cren-olivé, L. Wiest, R. Baudot, C. Arnaudguilhem et al., Multiresidue analysis and ultra-trace quantification of 36 priority substances from the European Water Framework Directive by GC-MS and LC-FLD-MS/MS in surface waters, Talanta, vol.79, issue.3, pp.712-722, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00509301

S. L. Bartelt-hunt, D. D. Snow, T. Damon-powell, D. L. Brown, G. Prasai et al.,

, Quantitative evaluation of laboratory uptake rates for pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and steroid hormones using POCIS, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.30, issue.6, pp.1412-1420

P. S. Bauerlein, J. E. Mansell, T. L. Ter-laak, D. Voogt, and P. , Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: Which functional group governs sorption?, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.46, issue.2, pp.954-961, 2012.

S. Bayen, E. Segovia, L. L. Loh, D. F. Burger, H. S. Eikaas et al., Application of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) to monitor emerging contaminants in tropical waters, Science of the Total Environment, vol.482, pp.15-22, 2014.

J. B. Belden, R. J. Gilliom, and M. J. Lydy, How well can we predict the toxicity of pesticide mixtures to aquatic life?, Integrated environmental assessment and management, vol.3, issue.3, pp.364-372, 2007.

A. Belles, C. Alary, Y. Aminot, J. W. Readman, and C. Franke, Calibration and response of an agarose gel based passive sampler to record short pulses of aquatic organic pollutants, Talanta, vol.165, pp.1-9, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01410056

A. Belles, C. Alary, N. Laguerre, and C. Franke, ) and Pollution Research, vol.25, issue.20, pp.20231-20240, 2018.

A. Belles, P. Pardon, and H. Budzinski, Development of an adapted version of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS-Nylon), Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.406, issue.4, pp.1099-1110, 2014.

A. Belles, N. Tapie, P. Pardon, and H. Budzinski, Development of the performance reference compound approach for the calibration of "polar organic chemical integrative sampler" (POCIS), Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.406, issue.4, pp.1131-1140, 2014.

W. W. Bennett, P. R. Teasdale, J. G. Panther, D. T. Welsh, and D. F. Jolley, New diffusive gradients in a thin film technique for measuring inorganic arsenic and selenium(IV) using a titanium dioxide based adsorbent, Analytical Chemistry, vol.82, issue.17, pp.7401-7407, 2010.

M. J. Benotti and B. J. Brownawell, Microbial degradation of pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal seawater, Environmental Pollution, vol.157, issue.3, pp.994-1002, 2009.

C. Berho, A. Togola, C. Coureau, J. P. Ghestem, and L. Amalric, Applicability of polar organic compound integrative samplers for monitoring pesticides in groundwater, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp.1-9, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00933450

J. Biggs, S. Von-fumetti, and M. Kelly-quinn, The importance of small waterbodies for biodiversity and ecosystem services: implications for policy makers, Hydrobiologia, vol.793, issue.1, pp.3-39, 2017.

, Banque Nationale des Ventes par les Distributaires, BNVD, 2013.

, Banque Nationale des Ventes par les Distributaires, 2015.

L. Boithias, S. Sauvage, G. Merlina, S. Jean, J. L. Probst et al., New insight into pesticide partition coefficient Kd for modelling pesticide fluvial transport: Application to an agricultural catchment in south-western France, Chemosphere, vol.99, pp.134-142, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00954719

A. Bondarenko, D. Sani, and M. L. Ruello, Design and calibration of an organic diffusive probe to extend the diffusion gradient technique to organic pollutants, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol.8, issue.8, pp.3318-3332, 2011.

K. Booij and S. Chen, Review of atrazine sampling by polar organic chemical integrative samplers and Chemcatcher, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.37, issue.7, pp.1786-1798, 2018.

K. Booij, N. L. Maarsen, M. Theeuwen, and R. Van-bommel, A method to account for the effect of hydrodynamics on polar organic compound uptake by passive samplers, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.36, issue.6, pp.1517-1524, 2017.

K. Booij, H. M. Sleiderink, and F. Smedes, Calibrating the uptake kinetics of semipermeable membrane devices using exposure standards, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.17, issue.7, pp.1236-1245, 1998.

I. J. Buerge, T. Poiger, M. D. Muller, and H. R. Buser, Combined sewer overflows to surface waters detected by the anthropogenic marker caffeine, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.40, issue.13, pp.4096-4102, 2006.

R. Buzier, A. Charriau, D. Corona, J. F. Lenain, P. Fondaneche et al., DGT-labile As, Cd, Cu and Ni monitoring in freshwater: Toward a framework for interpretation of in situ deployment, Environmental Pollution, vol.192, pp.52-58, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01024829

R. Buzier, R. Guibal, S. Lissalde, and G. Guibaud, -submitted to Chemosphere) Limitation of flow effect on passive sampling accuracy using POCIS with the PRC approach or o-DGT: a pilot-scale evaluation for pharmaceutical compounds, 2018.

E. Carmona, V. Andreu, and Y. Pico, Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: From waste to drinking water, Science of the Total Environment, vol.484, issue.1, pp.53-63, 2014.

I. Carpinteiro, M. Ramil, I. Rodriguez, and R. Cela, Determination of fungicides in wine by mixedmode solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1217, issue.48, pp.7484-7492, 2010.

I. Carpinteiro, A. Schopfer, N. Estoppey, C. Fong, D. Grandjean et al., Evaluation of performance reference compounds (PRCs) to monitor emerging polar contaminants by polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) in rivers, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, pp.1-12, 2016.

A. Ccanccapa, A. Masia, V. Andreu, and Y. Pico, Spatio-temporal patterns of pesticide residues in the Turia and Jucar Rivers (Spain), Science of the Total Environment, vol.540, pp.200-210, 2016.

. Cgdd/soes, Les pesticides dans les cours d'eau français en 2013. Statistiques, C. (ed), pp.1-12, 2015.

J. K. Challis, M. L. Hanson, and C. S. Wong, Development and Calibration of an Organic-Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Aquatic Passive Sampler for a Diverse Suite of Polar Organic Contaminants, Analytical Chemistry, vol.88, issue.21, pp.10583-10591, 2016.

J. K. Challis, M. L. Hanson, and C. S. Wong, Pharmaceuticals and pesticides archived on polar passive sampling devices can be stable for up to 6 years, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2018.

L. Charlestra, A. Amirbahman, D. L. Courtemanch, D. A. Alvarez, and H. Patterson, Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions, Environmental Pollution, vol.169, pp.98-104, 2012.

A. Charriau, S. Lissalde, G. Poulier, N. Mazzella, R. Buzier et al., Overview of the Chemcatcher® for the passive sampling of various pollutants in aquatic environments Part A: Principles, calibration, preparation and analysis of the sampler, Talanta, vol.148, pp.556-571, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01250839

C. Chen, H. Zhang, and K. C. Jones, A novel passive water sampler for in situ sampling of antibiotics, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol.14, pp.1523-1530, 2012.

C. E. Chen, W. Chen, G. G. Ying, K. C. Jones, and H. Zhang, In situ measurement of solution concentrations and fluxes of sulfonamides and trimethoprim antibiotics in soils using o-DGT, Talanta, vol.132, pp.902-908, 2015.

C. E. Chen, K. C. Jones, G. G. Ying, and H. Zhang, Desorption kinetics of sulfonamide and trimethoprim antibiotics in soils assessed with diffusive gradients in thin-films, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.48, issue.10, pp.5530-5536, 2014.

C. E. Chen, H. Zhang, G. G. Ying, and K. C. Jones, Evidence and recommendations to support the use of a novel passive water sampler to quantify antibiotics in wastewaters, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.47, issue.23, pp.13587-13593, 2013.

C. E. Chen, H. Zhang, G. G. Ying, L. J. Zhou, and K. C. Jones, Passive sampling: A cost-effective method for understanding antibiotic fate, behaviour and impact, Environment International, vol.85, pp.284-291, 2015.

W. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, A. J. Sweetman, H. Zhang et al., DGT Passive Sampling for Quantitative in Situ Measurements of Compounds from Household and Personal Care Products in Waters, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.51, issue.22, pp.13274-13281, 2017.

W. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, A. J. Sweetman, H. Zhang et al., DGT Passive Sampling for Quantitative in Situ Measurements of Compounds from Household and Personal Care Products in Waters, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.51, issue.22, pp.13274-13281, 2018.

T. Chonova, J. Labanowski, B. Cournoyer, C. Chardon, F. Keck et al., River biofilm community changes related to pharmaceutical loads emitted by a wastewater treatment plant, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.25, issue.10, pp.9254-9264, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01859406

C. M. Cooper, Biological effects of agriculturally derived surface water pollutants on aquatic systems -A review, Journal of Environmental Quality, vol.22, issue.3, pp.402-408, 1993.

J. Criquet, D. Dumoulin, M. Howsam, L. Mondamert, J. Goossens et al., Comparison of POCIS passive samplers vs. composite water sampling: A case study, Science of the Total Environment, vol.609, pp.982-991, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01653538

E. D'angelo and A. Martin, Tetracycline desorption kinetics in municipal biosolids and poultry litter amendments determined by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), Chemosphere, vol.209, pp.232-239, 2018.

E. D'angelo and D. Starnes, Desorption kinetics of ciprofloxacin in municipal biosolids determined by diffusion gradient in thin films, Chemosphere, vol.164, pp.215-224, 2016.

G. Dai, B. Wang, J. Huang, R. Dong, S. Deng et al., Occurrence and source apportionment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the Beiyun River of Beijing, China. Chemosphere, vol.119, pp.1033-1039, 2015.

R. L. Dalton, F. R. Pick, C. Boutin, and A. Saleem, Atrazine contamination at the watershed scale and environmental factors affecting sampling rates of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler, 2014.

, Environmental Pollution, vol.189, pp.134-142

C. A. Damalas and I. G. Eleftherohorinos, Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol.8, issue.5, pp.1402-1419, 2011.

A. Daneshvar, K. Aboulfadl, L. Viglino, R. Broséus, S. Sauvé et al., , 2012.

W. Davison, C. Lin, Y. Gao, and H. Zhang, Effect of Gel Interactions with Dissolved Organic Matter on DGT Measurements of Trace Metals, Aquatic Geochemistry, vol.21, issue.2, pp.281-293, 2015.

W. Davison and H. Zhang, In situ speciation measurements of trace components in natural waters using thin-film gels, Nature, vol.367, issue.6463, pp.546-548, 1994.

W. Davison and H. Zhang, Progress in understanding the use of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) back to basics, Environmental Chemistry, vol.9, issue.1, pp.1-13, 2012.

D. Devillers, R. Buzier, M. Grybos, A. Charriau, and G. Guibaud, Key role of the sorption process in alteration of metal and metalloid quantification by fouling development on DGT passive samplers, Environmental Pollution, vol.230, pp.523-529, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01677338

D. Devillers, R. Buzier, S. Simon, A. Charriau, and G. Guibaud, Simultaneous measurement of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in freshwaters with a single Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films device, Talanta, vol.154, pp.533-538, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01307118

M. Di-carro, L. Bono, and E. Magi, A simple recirculating flow system for the calibration of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS): Effect of flow rate on different water pollutants, Talanta, vol.120, pp.30-33, 2014.

N. J. Diepens, E. Buffan-dubau, H. Budzinski, J. Kallerhoff, G. Merlina et al., Toxicity effects of an environmental realistic herbicide mixture on the seagrass Zostera noltei, Environmental Pollution, vol.222, pp.393-403, 2017.

J. Dong, H. Fan, D. Sui, L. Li, and T. Sun, , 2014.

Q. A. Edwards, S. M. Kulikov, and L. D. Garner-o'neale, Caffeine in surface and wastewaters in Barbados, West Indies. SpringerPlus, vol.4, issue.1, pp.1-12, 2015.

V. Fauvelle, S. L. Kaserzon, N. Montero, S. Lissalde, I. J. Allan et al., Dealing with Flow Effects on the Uptake of Polar Compounds by Passive Samplers, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.51, issue.5, pp.2536-2537, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01768816

V. Fauvelle, N. Mazzella, A. Belles, A. Moreira, I. Allan et al., Optimization of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler for the sampling of acidic and polar herbicides, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.406, pp.3191-3199, 2014.

V. Fauvelle, N. Mazzella, F. Delmas, K. Madarassou, M. Eon et al., Use of Mixed-Mode Ion Exchange Sorbent for the Passive Sampling of Organic Acids by Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS), Environmental Science & Technology, vol.46, issue.24, pp.13344-13353, 2012.

V. Fauvelle, T. T. Nhu-trang, T. Feret, K. Madarassou, J. Randon et al., Evaluation of Titanium Dioxide as a Binding Phase for the Passive Sampling of Glyphosate and Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid in an Aquatic Environment, Analytical Chemistry, vol.87, issue.12, pp.6004-6009, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01186957

Z. Feng, P. Zhu, H. Fan, S. Piao, L. Xu et al., Effect of Biofilm on Passive Sampling of Dissolved Orthophosphate Using the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique, Analytical Chemistry, vol.88, issue.13, pp.6836-6843, 2016.

D. S. Finn, N. Bonada, C. Murria, and J. M. Hughes, Small but mighty: Headwaters are vital to stream network biodiversity at two levels of organization, Journal of the North American Benthological Society, vol.30, issue.4, pp.963-980, 2011.

M. A. Fontecha-camara, M. V. Lopez-ramon, M. A. Alvarez-merino, and C. Moreno-castilla, Effect of Surface Chemistry, Solution pH, and Ionic Strength on the Removal of Herbicides Diuron and Amitrole from Water by an Activated Carbon Fiber, Langmuir, vol.23, pp.1242-1247, 2007.

V. Gabet-giraud, C. Miège, J. M. Choubert, S. M. Ruel, and M. Coquery, , 2010.

O. A. Garmo, K. R. Naqvi, O. Royset, and E. Steinnes, Estimation of diffusive boundary layer thickness in studies involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.386, issue.7-8, pp.2233-2237, 2006.

O. A. Garmo, O. Royset, E. Steinnes, and T. P. Flaten, Performance study of diffusive gradients in thin films for 55 elements, Analytical Chemistry, vol.75, issue.14, pp.3573-3580, 2003.

G. Gervais, S. Brosillon, A. Laplanche, and C. Helen, Ultra-pressure liquid chromatographyelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry for multiresidue determination of pesticides in water, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1202, issue.2, pp.163-172, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01897817

J. Gimpel, H. Zhang, W. Hutchinson, and W. Davison, Effect of solution composition, flow and deployment time on the measurement of trace metals by the diffusive gradient in thin films technique, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.448, issue.1-2, pp.93-103, 2001.

X. Gong, K. Li, C. Wu, L. Wang, and H. Sun, Passive sampling for monitoring polar organic pollutants in water by three typical samplers, Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, vol.17, pp.23-33, 2018.

T. Gorecki and J. Namienik, Passive sampling, TrAC -Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.21, issue.4, pp.276-291, 2002.

R. Greenwood, G. A. Mills, and B. Vrana, and associated satellite workshops, A report on the 2nd International Passive Sampling Workshop and Symposium, vol.25, pp.751-754, 2006.

R. Guibal, R. Buzier, A. Charriau, S. Lissalde, and G. Guibaud, Passive sampling of anionic pesticides using the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films technique (DGT), Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.966, pp.1-10, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01677331

R. Guibal, S. Lissalde, Y. Brizard, and G. Guibaud, Semi-continuous pharmaceutical and human tracer monitoring by POCIS sampling at the watershed-scale in an agricultural rural headwater river, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.360, pp.106-114, 2018.

R. Guibal, S. Lissalde, A. Charriau, and G. Guibaud, Improvement of POCIS ability to quantify pesticides in natural water by reducing polyethylene glycol matrix effects from polyethersulfone membranes, Talanta, vol.144, pp.1316-1323, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01250832

R. Guibal, S. Lissalde, A. Charriau, G. Poulier, N. Mazzella et al., Coupling passive sampling and time of flight mass spectrometry for a better estimation of polar pesticide freshwater contamination: Simultaneous target quantification and screening analysis, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1387, pp.75-85, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01250823

R. Guibal, S. Lissalde, J. Leblanc, K. Cleries, A. Charriau et al., Two sampling strategies for an overview of pesticide contamination in an agriculture-extensive headwater stream, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp.1-14, 2017.

C. Guo, T. Zhang, S. Hou, J. Lv, Y. Zhang et al., Investigation and Application of a New Passive Sampling Technique for in Situ Monitoring of Illicit Drugs in Waste Waters and Rivers, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.51, issue.16, pp.9101-9108, 2017.

W. Guo, K. Van-langenhove, M. S. Denison, W. Baeyens, M. Elskens et al., Estrogenic Activity Measurements in Water Using Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Film Coupled with an Estrogen Bioassay, Analytical Chemistry, vol.89, issue.24, pp.13357-13364, 2017.

C. Harman, I. J. Allan, and P. S. Bauerlein, The Challenge of Exposure Correction for Polar Passive Samplers -The PRC and the POCIS, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.45, issue.21, pp.9120-9121, 2011.

C. Harman, I. J. Allan, and E. L. Vermeirssen, Calibration and use of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler-a critical review, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.31, issue.12, pp.2724-2738, 2012.

C. Harman, O. Bøyum, K. V. Thomas, and M. Grung, Small but different effect of fouling on the uptake rates of semipermeable membrane devices and polar organic chemical integrative samplers, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.28, issue.11, pp.2324-2332, 2009.

C. Harman, M. Reid, and K. V. Thomas, Situ Calibration of a Passive Sampling Device for Selected Illicit Drugs and Their Metabolites in Wastewater, And Subsequent Year-Long Assessment of Community Drug Usage, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.45, issue.13, pp.5676-5682, 2011.

C. Harman, K. E. Tollefsen, O. Boyum, K. Thomas, and M. Grung, Uptake rates of alkylphenols, PAHs and carbazoles in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), Chemosphere, vol.72, issue.10, pp.1510-1516, 2008.

C. W. Heckman, Pesticide effects on aquatic habitats, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.16, issue.1, pp.48-57, 1982.

M. D. Hernando, M. J. Martinez-bueno, and A. R. Fernandez-alba, Seawater quality control of microcontaminants in fish farm cage systems: Application of passive sampling devices, Boletin. Instituto espagnol de oceanografia, vol.21, issue.1-4, pp.37-46, 2005.

V. Homem and L. Santos, Degradation and removal methods of antibiotics from aqueous matrices -A review, Journal of Environmental Management, vol.92, issue.10, pp.2304-2347, 2011.

J. N. Huckins, G. K. Manuweera, J. D. Petty, D. Mackay, and J. A. Lebo, Lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring organic contaminants in water, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.27, issue.12, pp.2489-2496, 1993.

J. N. Huckins, J. D. Petty, and K. Booij, Monitors of Organic Chemicals in the Environment, 2006.

J. N. Huckins, J. D. Petty, J. A. Lebo, F. V. Almeida, K. Booij et al., Development of the permeability/performance reference compound approach for in situ calibration of semipermeable membrane devices, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.36, issue.1, pp.85-91, 2002.

J. N. Huckins, M. W. Tubergen, and G. K. Manuweera, Semipermeable membrane devices containing model lipid: A new approach to monitoring the bioavaiiability of lipophilic contaminants and estimating their bioconcentration potential, Chemosphere, vol.20, issue.5, pp.533-552, 1990.

S. R. Hughes, P. Kay, and L. E. Brown, Global synthesis and critical evaluation of pharmaceutical data sets collected from river systems, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.47, issue.2, pp.661-677, 2013.

H. De, Synthèse : Données hydrologiques de synthèse, 2017.

I. Ibrahim, A. Togola, and C. Gonzalez, In-situ calibration of POCIS for the sampling of polar pesticides and metabolites in surface water, Talanta, vol.116, pp.495-500, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00851490

. Ifen, Les pesticides dans les eaux -donnée, 2003.

. Insee, Estimation de la population par département, sexe et grande classe d'âge, 2016.

M. D. Islam, G. Haberhauer, A. Kist, M. N. Rathor, M. Gerzabek et al., Multi-class determination of anthelmintics in soil and water by LC-MS/MS, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol.30, issue.6, pp.1128-1137, 2013.

R. Jacquet, C. Miège, P. Bados, S. Schiavone, and M. Coquery, Evaluating the polar organic chemical integrative sampler for the monitoring of beta-blockers and hormones in wastewater treatment plant effluents and receiving surface waters, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.31, issue.2, pp.279-288, 2012.

J. C. Jaimes-correa, D. D. Snow, and S. L. Bartelt-hunt, Seasonal occurrence of antibiotics and a beta agonist in an agriculturally-intensive watershed, Environmental Pollution, vol.205, pp.87-96, 2015.

O. A. Jones, N. Voulvoulis, and J. N. Lester, Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment a review, Environmental Technology, vol.22, issue.12, pp.1383-1394, 2001.

T. L. Jones-lepp, D. A. Alvarez, J. D. Petty, and J. N. Huckins, , 2004.

L. Joseph, J. Heo, Y. Park, J. R. Lora, and Y. Yoon, Adsorption of bisphenol A and 17?-ethinyl estradiol on single walled carbon nanotubes from seawater and brackish water, Desalination, vol.281, issue.1, pp.68-74, 2011.

S. L. Kaserzon, D. W. Hawker, K. Kennedy, M. Bartkow, S. Carter et al., Characterisation and comparison of the uptake of ionizable and polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by POCIS and Chemcatchers, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, vol.16, pp.2517-2526, 2014.

B. O. Keller, J. Sui, A. B. Young, and R. M. Whittal, Interferences and contaminants encountered in modern mass spectrometry, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.627, issue.1, pp.71-81, 2008.

K. H. Kim, E. Kabir, and S. A. Jahan, Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects, Science of the Total Environment, vol.575, pp.525-535, 2016.

J. K. Kingston, R. Greenwood, G. A. Mills, G. M. Morrison, and L. B. Persson, , 2000.

O. Koba, K. Grabicova, D. Cerveny, J. Turek, J. Kolarova et al., , 2018.

J. Kohoutek, B. Marsalek, and L. Blaha, Evaluation of the novel passive sampler for cyanobacterial toxins microcystins under various conditions including field sampling, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.397, issue.2, pp.823-828, 2010.

A. Kot-wasik, B. Zabiegala, M. Urbanowicz, E. Dominiak, A. Wasik et al., Advances in passive sampling in environmental studies, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.602, issue.2, pp.141-163, 2007.

J. Kreuger, Pesticides in stream water within an agricultural catchment in southern Sweden, Science of the Total Environment, vol.216, issue.3, pp.227-251, 1990.

U. Kunkel and M. Radke, Fate of pharmaceuticals in rivers: Deriving a benchmark dataset at favorable attenuation conditions, Water Research, vol.46, issue.17, pp.5551-5565, 2012.

M. Kuster, M. Lopez-de-alda, and D. Barcelo, Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis and regulatory issues of polar pesticides in natural and treated waters, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1216, issue.3, pp.520-529, 2009.

E. W. Lemmon, M. O. Mclinden, and D. G. Friend, Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems, 2010.

P. J. Linstrom and . Mallard, National Institue of Standards and Technology

H. Li, P. A. Helm, and C. D. Metcalfe, Sampling in the great lakes for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine-disrupting substances using the passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.29, issue.4, pp.751-762, 2010.

H. Li, P. A. Helm, G. Paterson, and C. D. Metcalfe, The effects of dissolved organic matter and pH on sampling rates for polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), Chemosphere, vol.83, issue.3, pp.271-280, 2011.

H. Li, E. L. Vermeirssen, P. A. Helm, and C. D. Metcalfe, Controlled field evaluation of water flow rate effects on sampling polar organic compounds using polar organic chemical integrative samplers, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.29, issue.11, pp.2461-2469, 2010.

Y. Li, C. Yang, D. Zha, L. Wang, G. Lu et al., , pp.1356-1363, 2018.

M. Liess and R. Schulz, Linking insecticide contamination and population response in an agricultural stream, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.18, issue.9, pp.1948-1955, 1999.

M. Liess, R. Schulz, M. H. Liess, B. Rother, and R. Kreuzig, , 1999.

Z. Lin, Z. Zhen, C. Chen, Y. Li, C. Luo et al., Rhizospheric effects on atrazine speciation and degradation in laterite soils of Pennisetum alopecuroides, L.) Spreng. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.25, issue.13, pp.12407-12418, 2018.

P. C. Lindholm-lehto, H. S. Ahkola, J. S. Knuutinen, and S. H. Herve, , 2016.

S. Lissalde, A. Charriau, G. Poulier, N. Mazzella, R. Buzier et al., Overview of the Chemcatcher® for the passive sampling of various pollutants in aquatic environments Part B: Field handling and environmental applications for the monitoring of pollutants and their biological effects, Talanta, vol.148, pp.572-582, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01250843

S. Lissalde, N. Mazzella, V. Fauvelle, F. Delmas, P. Mazellier et al., Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for thirty-three pesticides in natural water and comparison of performance between classical solid phase extraction and passive sampling approaches, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1218, issue.11, pp.1492-1502, 2011.

S. Lissalde, N. Mazzella, and P. Mazellier, Polar organic chemical integrative samplers for pesticides monitoring: Impacts of field exposure conditions, Science of the Total Environment, vol.488, issue.0, pp.188-196, 2014.

T. Lobpreis, B. Vrana, E. Dominiak, K. Dercova, G. A. Mills et al., , 2008.

R. Loos, B. M. Gawlik, G. Locoro, E. Rimaviciute, S. Contini et al., EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters, Environmental Pollution, vol.157, issue.2, pp.561-568, 2009.

G. R. Lotufo, R. D. George, J. B. Belden, C. M. Woodley, D. L. Smith et al., Investigation of, 2018.

W. H. Lowe and G. E. Likens, Moving headwater streams to the head of the class, BioScience, vol.55, issue.3, pp.196-197, 2005.

R. Ma, B. Wang, L. Yin, Y. Zhang, S. Deng et al., Characterization of pharmaceutically active compounds in Beijing, China: Occurrence pattern, spatiotemporal distribution and its environmental implication, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.323, pp.147-155, 2017.

S. L. Macleod, E. L. Mcclure, and C. S. Wong, Laboratory calibration and field deployment of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler for pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater and surface water, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.26, issue.12, pp.2517-2529, 2007.

Y. Madrid and Z. P. Zayas, Water sampling: Traditional methods and new approaches in water sampling strategy, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.26, issue.4, pp.293-299, 2007.

E. Magi, M. Di-carro, C. Mirasole, and B. Benedetti, Combining passive sampling and tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of pharmaceuticals and other emerging pollutants in drinking water, 2018.

, Microchemical Journal, vol.136, pp.56-60

I. Mahmood, S. R. Imadi, K. Shazadi, A. Gul, and K. R. Hakeem, Implications in Crop Science, vol.1, pp.253-269, 2016.

L. Mandaric, E. Diamantini, E. Stella, K. Cano-paoli, J. Valle-sistac et al., Contamination sources and distribution patterns of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Alpine rivers strongly affected by tourism, Science of the Total Environment, vol.590, pp.484-494, 2017.

M. Bueno, M. J. Hernando, M. D. Aguera, A. Fernandez-alba, and A. R. , Application of passive sampling devices for screening of micro-pollutants in marine aquaculture using LC-MS/MS, Talanta, vol.77, issue.4, pp.1518-1527, 2009.

M. Bueno, M. J. Herrera, S. Munaron, D. Boillot, C. Fenet et al., , p.POCIS, 2016.

A. Masia, J. Campo, C. Blasco, and Y. Pico, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify contaminants in water: An insight on environmental forensics, Journal of Chromatography A, issue.0, 2014.

C. F. Mason, G. J. Underwood, N. R. Baker, P. A. Davey, I. Davidson et al., The role of herbicides in the erosion of salt marshes in eastern England, Environmental Pollution, vol.122, issue.1, pp.41-49, 2003.

N. Mastroianni, M. J. Bleda, M. Lopez-de-alda, and D. Barcelo, Occurrence of drugs of abuse in surface water from four Spanish river basins: Spatial and temporal variations and environmental risk assessment, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.316, pp.134-142, 2016.

P. Matthiessen, D. Arnold, A. C. Johnson, T. J. Pepper, T. G. Pottinger et al., , 2006.

N. Mazzella, T. Debenest, and F. Delmas, Comparison between the polar organic chemical integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average concentrations during a microcosm experiment, Chemosphere, vol.73, issue.4, pp.545-550, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00454420

N. Mazzella, J. Dubernet, and F. Delmas, Determination of kinetic and equilibrium regimes in the operation of polar organic chemical integrative samplers: Application to the passive sampling of the polar herbicides in aquatic environments, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1154, issue.1-2, pp.42-51, 2007.

N. Mazzella, S. Lissalde, S. Moreira, F. Delmas, P. Mazellier et al., Evaluation of the Use of Performance Reference Compounds in an Oasis-HLB Adsorbent Based Passive Sampler for Improving Water Concentration Estimates of Polar Herbicides in Freshwater, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.44, issue.5, pp.1713-1719, 2010.

C. Metcalfe, M. E. Hoque, T. Sultana, C. Murray, P. Helm et al., Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers, Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts, vol.16, issue.3, pp.473-481, 2014.

J. L. Meyer, D. L. Strayer, J. B. Wallace, S. L. Eggert, G. S. Helfman et al., The contribution of headwater streams to biodiversity in river networks, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol.43, issue.1, pp.86-103, 2007.

C. Miège, J. M. Choubert, L. Ribeiro, M. Eusèbe, and M. Coquery, Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants -Conception of a database and first results, Environmental Pollution, vol.157, issue.5, pp.1721-1726, 2009.

C. Miège, N. Mazzella, I. Allan, V. Dulio, F. Smedes et al., Position paper on passive sampling techniques for the monitoring of contaminants in the aquatic environment -Achievements to date and perspectives, Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, vol.8, pp.20-26, 2015.

T. H. Miller, J. A. Baz-lomba, C. Harman, M. J. Reid, S. F. Owen et al.,

, The First Attempt at Non-Linear in Silico Prediction of Sampling Rates for Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS), Environmental Science & Technology, vol.50, issue.15, pp.7973-7981

G. A. Mills, A. Gravell, B. Vrana, C. Harman, H. Budzinski et al., , 2014.

, Ministère de la Transition Ecologique et Solidaire (Mars 2017) Statistique Développement Durable

, Ministère de la Transition Ecologique et Solidaire and Ministère de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation (2009) Plan Ecophyto I

, Ministère de la Transition Ecologique et Solidaire and Ministère de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation, 2015.

N. Morin, J. Camilleri, C. Cren-olivé, M. Coquery, and C. Miège, Determination of uptake kinetics and sampling rates for 56 organic micropollutants using "pharmaceutical, POCIS. Talanta, vol.109, pp.61-73, 2013.

N. Morin, C. Miège, M. Coquery, and J. Randon, Chemical calibration, performance, validation and applications of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in aquatic environments, TrAC -Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.36, pp.144-175, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00773460

C. Moschet, E. L. Vermeirssen, H. Singer, C. Stamm, and J. Hollender, , 2015.

J. M. Nogueira, T. Sandra, and P. Sandra, Multiresidue screening of neutral pesticides in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.505, issue.2, pp.209-215, 2004.

H. Noorizadeh, A. Farmany, and M. Noorizadeh, 2013) pKa modelling and prediction of drug molecules through GA-KPLS and L-M ANN, Drug Testing and Analysis, vol.5, issue.2, pp.103-109

A. J. Novic, D. S. O'brien, S. L. Kaserzon, D. W. Hawker, S. E. Lewis et al., Monitoring Herbicide Concentrations and Loads during a Flood Event: A Comparison of Grab Sampling with Passive Sampling, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.51, issue.7, pp.3880-3891, 2017.

L. H. Nowell, J. E. Norman, P. W. Moran, J. D. Martin, and W. W. Stone, , 2014.

P. Paiga, L. H. Santos, S. Ramos, S. Jorge, J. G. Silva et al., Presence of pharmaceuticals in the Lis river (Portugal): Sources, fate and seasonal variation, Science of the Total Environment, vol.573, pp.164-177, 2016.

J. G. Panther, P. R. Teasdale, W. W. Bennett, D. T. Welsh, and H. Zhao, Titanium dioxide-based DGT technique for in situ measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in fresh and marine waters, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.44, issue.24, pp.9419-9424, 2010.

A. Paschke, K. Schwab, J. Brümmer, G. Schüürmann, H. Paschke et al., Rapid semicontinuous calibration and field test of membrane-enclosed silicone collector as passive water sampler, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1124, issue.1-2, pp.187-195, 2006.

K. A. Peeler, S. P. Opsahl, and J. P. Chanton, Tracking anthropogenic inputs using caffeine, indicator bacteria, and nutrients in rural freshwater and urban marine systems, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.40, issue.24, pp.7616-7622, 2006.

B. Petrie, A. Gravell, G. A. Mills, J. Youdan, R. Barden et al., , 2016.

M. Petrovic, M. Farré, M. L. De-alda, S. Perez, C. Postigo et al., Recent trends in the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of organic contaminants in environmental samples, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1217, issue.25, pp.4004-4017, 2010.

C. Pichette, H. Zhang, and S. Sauvé, , 2009.

G. Poulier, S. Lissalde, A. Charriau, R. Buzier, K. Cleries et al., Estimates of pesticide concentrations and fluxes in two rivers of an extensive French multi-agricultural watershed: application of the passive sampling strategy, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.22, issue.11, pp.8044-8057, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01250750

G. Poulier, S. Lissalde, A. Charriau, R. Buzier, F. Delmas et al., Can POCIS be used in Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) monitoring networks? A study focusing on pesticides in a French agricultural watershed, Science of the Total Environment, vol.497, pp.282-292, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01250762

C. E. Purdom, P. A. Hardiman, V. V. Bye, N. C. Eno, C. R. Tyler et al., Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works, Chemistry and Ecology, vol.8, issue.4, pp.275-285, 1994.

J. J. Rasmussen, U. S. Mcknight, M. C. Loinaz, N. I. Thomsen, M. E. Olsson et al., A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams, Science of the Total Environment, vol.442, pp.420-431, 2013.

T. Reemtsma, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and strategies for trace-level analysis of polar organic pollutants, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1000, issue.1-2, pp.477-501, 2003.

R. A. Relyea, A cocktail of contaminants: How mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities, Oecologia, vol.159, issue.2, pp.363-376, 2009.

S. Ren, J. Tao, F. Tan, Y. Cui, X. Li et al., Diffusive gradients in thin films based on MOF-derived porous carbon binding gel for in-situ measurement of antibiotics in waters, Science of the Total Environment, vol.645, pp.482-490, 2018.

M. L. Richardson and J. M. Bowron, The fate of pharmaceutical chemicals in the aquatic environment, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol.37, issue.1, pp.1-12, 1985.

A. Rodayan, S. Afana, P. A. Segura, T. Sultana, C. D. Metcalfe et al., Linking drugs of abuse in wastewater to contamination of surface and drinking water, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.35, issue.4, pp.843-849, 2016.

A. M. Rodrigues, V. Ferreira, V. V. Cardoso, E. Ferreira, and M. J. Benoliel, Determination of several pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction, liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1150, issue.1-2, pp.267-278, 2007.

T. Rujiralai, I. D. Bull, N. Llewellyn, and R. P. Evershed, In situ polar organic chemical integrative sampling (POCIS) of steroidal estrogens in sewage treatment works discharge and river water, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol.13, issue.5, pp.1427-1434, 2011.

T. P. Rusina, F. Smedes, and J. Klanova, Diffusion coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in polydimethylsiloxane and low-density polyethylene polymers, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol.116, issue.3, pp.1803-1810, 2010.

J. Santner, A. Kreuzeder, A. Schnepf, and W. W. Wenzel, Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.49, issue.10, pp.6109-6116, 2015.

S. Scally, W. Davison, and H. Zhang, , 2006.

R. B. Schafer, T. Caquet, K. Siimes, R. Mueller, L. Lagadic et al., , 2007.

R. B. Schafer, A. Paschke, B. Vrana, R. Mueller, and M. Liess, Performance of the Chemcatcher® passive sampler when used to monitor 10 polar and semi-polar pesticides in 16 Central European streams, and comparison with two other sampling methods, Water Research, vol.42, issue.10, pp.2707-2717, 2008.

A. Schopfer, N. Estoppey, J. Omlin, R. Udrisard, P. Esseiva et al., The use of passive samplers to reveal industrial and agricultural pollution trends in swiss rivers, Chimia, vol.68, issue.11, pp.778-782, 2014.

R. Schulz and M. Liess, , 1999.

R. P. Schwarzenbach, P. M. Gschwend, and D. M. Imboden, Environmental Organic Chemistry, 1993.

S. Seethapathy, T. Gorecki, and X. Li, Passive sampling in environmental analysis, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1184, issue.1-2, pp.234-253, 2008.

M. R. Servos, D. T. Bennie, B. K. Burnison, A. Jurkovic, R. Mcinnis et al., Distribution of estrogens, ?-estradiol and estrone, 2005.

M. J. Shipitalo and L. B. Owens, Atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in surface runoff from conservation tilled watersheds, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.37, issue.5, pp.944-950, 2003.

H. S. Soderstrom and P. A. Bergqvist, , 2004.

K. R. Solomon, D. B. Baker, R. P. Richards, K. R. Dixon, S. J. Klaine et al., Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.15, issue.1, pp.31-76, 1996.

J. C. Sousa, A. R. Ribeiro, M. O. Barbosa, M. F. Pereira, and A. M. Silva, , 2018.

K. M. Stroski, J. K. Challis, and C. S. Wong, The influence of pH on sampler uptake for an improved configuration of the organic-diffusive gradients in thin films passive sampler, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.1018, pp.45-53, 2018.

F. Stuer-lauridsen, Review of passive accumulation devices for monitoring organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment, Environmental Pollution, vol.136, issue.3, pp.503-524, 2005.

T. L. Ter-laak, M. Van-der-aa, C. J. Houtman, P. G. Stoks, and A. P. Van-wezel, Relating environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals to consumption: A mass balance approach for the river Rhine, Environment International, vol.36, issue.5, pp.403-409, 2010.

A. A. Thomatou, I. Zacharias, D. Hela, and I. Konstantinou, Passive sampling of selected pesticides in aquatic environment using polar organic chemical integrative samplers, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.18, issue.7, pp.1222-1233, 2011.

E. M. Thurman and J. D. Fallon, , 1996.

A. Togola and H. Budzinski, , 2007.

H. Tong, D. Bell, K. Tabei, and M. M. Siegel, Automated data massaging, interpretation, and e-mailing modules for high throughput open access mass spectrometry, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, vol.10, issue.11, pp.1174-1187, 1999.

X. S. Tong, J. Wang, S. Zheng, J. V. Pivnichny, P. R. Griffin et al., Effect of Signal Interference from Dosing Excipients on Pharmacokinetic Screening of Drug Candidates by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, vol.74, issue.24, pp.6305-6313, 2002.

V. Toteu-djomte, R. B. Taylor, S. Chen, K. Booij, and C. K. Chambliss, Effects of hydrodynamic conditions and temperature on POCIS sampling rates, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2018.

H. Trufelli, P. Palma, G. Famiglini, and A. Cappiello, , 2011.

G. S. Turner, G. A. Mills, M. J. Bowes, J. L. Burnett, S. Amos et al., Evaluation of DGT as a long-term water quality monitoring tool in natural waters; Uranium as a case study, Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts, vol.16, issue.3, pp.393-403, 2014.

G. S. Turner, G. A. Mills, P. R. Teasdale, J. L. Burnett, S. Amos et al., Evaluation of DGT techniques for measuring inorganic uranium species in natural waters: Interferences, deployment time and speciation, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.739, pp.37-46, 2012.

E. Uher, C. Compère, M. Combe, F. Mazeas, and C. Gourlay-francé, In situ measurement with diffusive gradients in thin films: effect of biofouling in freshwater, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.24, issue.15, pp.13797-13807, 2017.

E. Uher, M. Tusseau-vuillemin, and C. Gourlay-france, DGT measurement in low flow conditions: diffusive boundary layer and lability considerations. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, vol.15, pp.1351-1358, 2013.

E. Uher, H. Zhang, S. Santos, M. Tusseau-vuillemin, and C. Gourlay-francé, Impact of biofouling on diffusive gradient in thin film measurements in water, Analytical Chemistry, vol.84, issue.7, pp.3111-3118, 2012.

A. Vallejo, A. Prieto, M. Moeder, A. Usobiaga, O. Zuloaga et al., , 2013.

, Water Research, vol.47, issue.8, pp.2851-2862

G. Van-maele-fabry, A. C. Lantin, P. Hoet, and D. Lison, Childhood leukaemia and parental occupational exposure to pesticides: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Cancer Causes and Control, vol.21, issue.6, pp.787-809, 2010.

P. C. Van-metre, D. A. Alvarez, B. J. Mahler, L. Nowell, M. Sandstrom et al., Complex mixtures of Pesticides in Midwest U.S. streams indicated by POCIS time-integrating samplers, Environmental Pollution, vol.220, pp.431-440, 2017.

A. M. Veach and M. J. Bernot, , 2011.

E. L. Vermeirssen, N. Bramaz, J. Hollender, H. Singer, and B. I. Escher, Passive sampling combined with ecotoxicological and chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals and biocides -evaluation of three Chemcatcher configurations, Water Research, vol.43, issue.4, pp.903-914, 2009.

E. L. Vermeirssen, C. Dietschweiler, B. I. Escher, . Van-der, J. Voet et al., Transfer kinetics of polar organic compounds over polyethersulfone membranes in the passive samplers pocis and chemcatcher, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.46, issue.12, pp.6759-6766, 2012.

N. M. Vieno, H. Harkki, T. Tuhkanen, and L. Kronberg, Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in river water and their elimination in a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.41, issue.14, pp.5077-5084, 2007.

N. M. Vieno, T. Tuhkanen, and L. Kronberg, Seasonal variation in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in effluents from a sewage treatment plant and in the recipient water, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.39, issue.21, pp.8220-8226, 2005.

A. Villeneuve, B. Montuelle, and A. Bouchez, Effects of flow regime and pesticides on periphytic communities: Evolution and role of biodiversity, Aquatic Toxicology, vol.102, issue.3-4, pp.123-133, 2011.

B. Vrana, I. J. Allan, R. Greenwood, G. A. Mills, E. Dominiak et al., Passive sampling techniques for monitoring pollutants in water, TrAC -Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.24, issue.10, pp.845-868, 2005.

B. Vrana, G. A. Mills, M. Kotterman, P. Leonards, K. Booij et al., Modelling and field, 2007.

B. Vrana and G. Schuurmann, Calibrating the uptake kinetics of semipermeable membrane devices in water: Impact of hydrodynamics, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.36, issue.2, pp.290-296, 2002.

K. W. Warnken, H. Zhang, and W. Davison, Accuracy of the diffusive gradients in thin-films technique: Diffusive boundary layer and effective sampling area considerations, Analytical Chemistry, vol.78, issue.11, pp.3780-3787, 2006.

. Waters, Oasis PRiME HLB Food Applications Notebook, pp.1-60, 2017.

J. L. Wilkinson, P. S. Hooda, J. Swinden, J. Barker, and S. Barton, , 2017.

R. J. Williams, D. N. Brooke, P. Matthiessen, M. Mills, A. Turnbull et al., Pesticide Transport to Surface Waters within an Agricultural Catchment, Water and Environment Journal, vol.9, issue.1, pp.72-81, 1995.

C. Wu, J. D. Witter, A. L. Spongberg, and K. P. Czajkowski, Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in an agricultural landscape, western Lake Erie basin, Water Research, vol.43, issue.14, pp.3407-3416, 2009.

H. Xie, J. Chen, Q. Chen, C. L. Chen, J. Du et al., Development and evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin films technique for measuring antibiotics in seawater, Science of the Total Environment, vol.618, pp.1605-1612, 2018.

H. Xie, Q. Chen, J. Chen, C. L. Chen, and J. Du, Investigation and application of diffusive gradients in thin-films technique for measuring endocrine disrupting chemicals in seawaters, Chemosphere, vol.200, pp.351-357, 2018.

W. Xie, W. Shiu, and D. Mackay, A review of the effect of salts on the solubility of organic compounds in seawater, Marine Environmental Research, vol.44, issue.4, pp.429-444, 1997.

T. Yamamoto, Sex Differentiation, Fish Physiology, vol.3, pp.117-175, 1969.

B. Zabiegala, A. Kot-wasik, M. Urbanowicz, and J. Namie?nik, , 2010.

H. Zhang and W. Davison, Performance characteristics of diffusion gradients in thin films for the in situ measurement of trace metals in aqueous solution, Analytical Chemistry, vol.67, issue.19, pp.3391-3400, 1995.

H. Zhang and W. Davison, Diffusional characteristics of hydrogels used in DGT and DET techniques, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.398, issue.2-3, pp.329-340, 1999.

H. Zhang, W. Davison, S. Miller, and W. Tych, In situ high resolution measurements of fluxes of Ni, Cu, Fe, and Mn and concentrations of Zn and Cd in porewaters by DGT, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.59, issue.20, pp.4181-4192, 1995.

Y. Zhang, T. Zhang, C. Guo, S. Hou, Z. Hua et al., , 2018.

Y. Zhang and J. L. Zhou, Removal of estrone and 17?-estradiol from water by adsorption, Water Research, vol.39, issue.16, pp.3991-4003, 2005.

Z. Zhang, A. Hibberd, and J. L. Zhou, Analysis of emerging contaminants in sewage effluent and river water: Comparison between spot and passive sampling, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.607, issue.1, pp.37-44, 2008.

Z. Zhang, M. Troldborg, K. Yates, M. Osprey, C. Kerr et al., Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme, Science of the Total Environment, vol.569, pp.1369-1379, 2016.

J. L. Zheng, D. X. Guan, J. Luo, H. Zhang, W. Davison et al., , 2014.

C. Zhou, J. Chen, H. Xie, Y. N. Zhang, Y. Li et al., Modeling photodegradation kinetics of organic micropollutants in water bodies: A case of the Yellow River estuary, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.349, pp.60-67, 2016.

, Liste des composés organiques échantillonné par le o-DGT avec les caractéristiques de mise en oeuvre et la configuration correspondante de l'échantillonneur, Annexes Annexe, vol.1

, Annexe 2, Taux d'échantillonnage des résidus pharmaceutiques (mL/d) disponibles dans la littérature

, Courbe de la concentration dans l'échantillonneur passif POCIS divisé par la concentration dans l'eau en fonction du temps (Chapitre IV.C)