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Electromagnetic microsystem for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles in a microfluidic structure for immunoassays

Abstract : The detection and quantification of a biological agent or entity has become paramount to anticipate a possible health threat (epidemic or pandemic), environmental threat or to combat other contextual threats (bioterrorism, chemical and biological weapons, drugs). Consequently, developing a portable cost effective device that could detect and quantify such threats is the research focus of the joint multidisciplinary project between UPMC (Paris 6) laboratories and RWTH university in Aachen, Germany. In the framework of this project, we have studied the multidisciplinary aspects of an electromagnetic microsystem for immunologic detection based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in a microfluidic lab-on-chip (LoC). Because of their extractability and sortability, magnetic nanoparticles are adapted for examination of biological samples, serving as markers for biochemical reactions. So far, the final detection step is mostly achieved by well-known immunochemical or fluorescence-based techniques which are time consuming and have limited sensitivity. Therefore, magnetic immunoassays detecting the analyte by means of magnetic markers constitute a promising alternative. MNP covered with biocompatible surface coating can be specifically bound to analytes, cells, viruses or bacteria. They can also be used for separation and concentration enhancement. The novel frequency mixing magnetic detection method allows quantifying magnetic nanoparticles with a very large dynamic measurement range. In this thesis, emphasis is put on the miniaturized implementation of this detection scheme. Following the development of analytical and multiphysics simulations tools for optimization of both excitation frequencies and detection planar coils, first multilayered printed circuit board prototypes integrating all three different coils along with an adapted microfluidic chip has been designed and realized. These prototypes have been tested and characterized with respect to their performance for limit of detection (LOD) of MNP, linear response and validation of theoretical concepts. Using the frequency mixing magnetic detection technique, a LOD of 15ng/mL for 20 nm core sized MNP has been achieved with a sample volume of 14 μL corresponding to a drop of blood. Preliminary works for biosensing have also been achieved with a state of the art of surface functionalization and a developed proposed biochemical immobilization procedure and preliminary tests of its validation.
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Amine Rabehi. Electromagnetic microsystem for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles in a microfluidic structure for immunoassays. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Sorbonne Université; Rheinisch-westfälische technische Hochschule (Aix-la-Chapelle, Allemagne), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS129⟩. ⟨tel-02335464⟩

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