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How stigmatic epidermis mediates the invading cell growth : the case of pollen tube and oomycete hypha

Abstract : The epidermis is the first cellular barrier in direct contact with the environment in both animal and plant organisms. In plants, the result of the cell-to-cell communication that occurs between the pollen grain and the epidermal cells of the stigma, also called papillae, is crucial for successful reproduction. When accepted, the pollen grain germinates and emits a pollen tube that transports the male gametes towards the ovules. Effective fertilization in angiosperms depends on the proper trajectory that pollen tubes take while progressing within the pistil tissues to reach the ovules.Pollen tubes grow within the cell wall of the papilla cells, applying pressure to the wall. Such forces are known to alter the cortical microtubule (CMT) network and cell behaviour. The first part of my PhD thesis aimed at investigating the role of the microtubule cytoskeleton of stigmatic cells in pollen tube growth. By combining cell imaging and genetic approaches, we found that in the Arabidopsis katanin1-5 (ktn1-5) mutant, papillae have a highly isotropic CMT array, associated with a marked tendency of wild-type (WT) pollen tube to turn around the papillae. We could partially phenocopy this coiled growth of pollen tubes by treating WT papillae with the microtubule-depolymerizing drug oryzalin. As CMT pattern is linked to cellulose microfibrils organisation, and hence possibly to cell-wall stiffness, we assessed the stiffness of ktn1-5 and aged papillae using Atomic Force Microscopy. Altogether, our results suggest that both organisation of CMT and cell wall properties dependent on KATANIN have a major role in guiding early pollen tube growth in stigma papillae.Similarly to pollen tube growth within the stigmatic papilla, hypha of filamentous pathogens penetrates the epidermal tissue of the host. During pathogen attacks, epidermal cells promptly react to the invading organisms to adjust the most relevant response. Early response of the first cell layers including epidermal cells is decisive for the result of plant-pathogen interactions. The second part of my PhD work aimed at comparing the cellular response of stigmatic cells challenged by two types of invaders, the pollen tube during pollination and hyphae of two oomycete filamentous pathogens, Phytophtora parasitica and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, during the infection process. We demonstrate that a stigmatic cell challenged by a pollen tube or an oomycete hypha adapts its response to the invader’s identity.
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Submitted on : Sunday, October 27, 2019 - 1:01:52 AM
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Lucie Riglet. How stigmatic epidermis mediates the invading cell growth : the case of pollen tube and oomycete hypha. Cellular Biology. Université de Lyon, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEN058⟩. ⟨tel-02334605⟩



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