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Problémes bien-posés et étude qualitative pour des équations cinétiques et des équations dissipatives.

Abstract : In this thesis, we study some kinetic equations and some partial differential equations with dissipative mechanism, such as Boltzmann equation, Landau equation and some non-symmetric hyperbolic systems with dissipation type. Global existence of solutions or optimal decay rates of solutions for these systems are considered in Sobolev spaces or Besov spaces. Also the smoothing properties of solutions are studied. In this thesis, we mainly prove the following four results, see Chapters 3-6 for more details. For the _rst result, we investigate the Cauchy problem for the inhomogeneous nonlinear Landau equation with Maxwellian molecules ( = 0). See from some known results for Boltzmann equation and Landau equation, their global existence of solutions are mainly proved in some (weighted) Sobolev spaces and require a high regularity index, see Guo [62], a series works of Alexandre-Morimoto-Ukai-Xu-Yang [5, 6, 7, 9] and references therein. Recently, Duan-Liu-Xu [52] and Morimoto-Sakamoto [145] obtained the global existence results of solutions to the Boltzmann equation in critical Besov spaces. Motivated by their works, we establish the global existence of solutions for Landau equation in spatially critical Besov spaces in perturbation framework. Precisely, if the initial datum is a small perturbation of the equilibrium distribution in the Chemin-Lerner space eL 2v (B3=2 2;1 ), then the Cauchy problem of Landau equation admits a global solution belongs to eL 1t eL 2v (B3=2 2;1 ). Our results improve the result in [62] and extend the global existence result for Boltzmann equation in [52, 145] to Landau equation. Secondly, we consider the Cauchy problem for the spatially nhomogeneous non-cuto_ Kac equation. Lerner-Morimoto-Pravda-Starov-Xu [117] considered the spatially inhomogeneous non-cuto_ Kac equation in Sobolev spaces and showed that the Cauchy problem for the uctuation around the Maxwellian distribution admitted S 1+ 1 2s 1+ 1 2s Gelfand-Shilov regularity properties with respect to the velocity variable and G1+ 1 2s Gevrey regularizing properties with respect to the position variable. And the authors conjectured that it remained still open to determine whether the regularity indices 1+ 1 2s is sharp or not. In this thesis, if the initial datum belongs to the spatially critical Besov space eL 2v (B1=2 2;1 ), we prove the well-posedness to the inhomogeneous Kac equation under a perturbation framework. Furthermore, it is shown that the weak solution enjoys S 3s+1 2s(s+1) 3s+1 2s(s+1) Gelfand-Shilov regularizing properties with respect to the velocity variableand G1+ 1 2s Gevrey regularizing properties with respect to the position variable. In our results, the Gelfand-Shilov regularity index is improved to be optimal. And this result is the _rst one that exhibits smoothing e_ect for the kinetic equation in Besov spaces. About the third result, we consider compressible Navier-Stokes-Maxwell equations arising in plasmas physics, which is a concrete example of hyperbolic-parabolic composite systems with non-symmetric dissipation. It is observed that the Cauchy problem for Navier-Stokes-Maxwell equations admits the dissipative mechanism of regularity-loss type. Consequently, extra higher regularity is usually needed to obtain the optimal decay rate of L1(R3)-L2(R3) type, in comparison with that for the global-in-time existence of smooth solutions.
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Hongmei Cao. Problémes bien-posés et étude qualitative pour des équations cinétiques et des équations dissipatives.. Equations aux dérivées partielles [math.AP]. Normandie Université; Nanjing University (Chine), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMR044⟩. ⟨tel-02333838⟩

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