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Vers la stabilisation d'un interféromètre atomique contre les vibrations : le pendule à lame élastique et son amortissement

Abstract : The main theme of my thesis is atomic interferometry and in particular the reduction of the phase noise induced by vibrations. Atomic interferometers are good devices to achieve accurate and fundamental measuring. The sensibility of these devices is related to the flying time of the atoms inside the apparatus. At Toulouse, our interferometer worked with atoms at thermal velocity and to increase the sensibility we wanted slower atoms. However, this will at the same time increase the effect of vibrations, witch result in a larger phase noise and a jamming of the fringes. In order to reduce this effect, I've put the core of the interferometer on a 3 wires pendulum. A pendulum attenuates the vibrations of frequencies much higher than its resonant frequencies but amplifies those with frequencies close to its resonances. To avoid this phenomenom, we have to enslave the pendulum on the signal given by seismometers. With a first realisation, I was able to stabilize 2 horizontal movements with 2 low sensibility seismometers. To increase the performances, I needed high sensibility seismometer and the possibility to operate under ultra vacuum. I've made a deplacement sensor based on the Michelson interferometer with cube corners, following the works of Zumberge's team. By choosing cleverly the polarisation of the laser beam, we can detect 2 signals in quadrature and the sensibility achieved is better than 4x10-13 m/vHz at 1 Hz. The next step was to migrate this seismometer in ultra vacuum but the retirement of the interferometer using slow down lithium atoms at the benefit of an atomic fountain of rubidium stopped this project. However, this work on the seismometer led me to think about elastic blade pendulums, widely used in such sensors. I've complete the theory, showing the presence of 2 resonance frequencies and, as a test, I've build a such pendulum, for witch I've measured the caracteristics with some position and velocity sensors I've developped for this purpose. I was able to measure precisely the damping of the oscillations of the pendulum and study more precisely the different origins of the damping. Two of them have given some additionnal work : a)the coupling with the resonances of the frame witch support the pendulum may have an effect on the quality factor of the pendulum. [...]
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Gilles Dolfo. Vers la stabilisation d'un interféromètre atomique contre les vibrations : le pendule à lame élastique et son amortissement. Génie mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30193⟩. ⟨tel-02325381⟩



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