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Etude des interactions matériau/procédé en vue d'une optimisation des conditions opératoires du procédé de fabrication additive SLM sur des alliages d'aluminium pour des applications aéronautiques.

Abstract : Interest in selective laser melting (SLM) has been growing in recent years, particularly with regard to the production of metal parts.The low density of aluminum alloys, combined with the possible design optimization enabled by additive manufacturing processes,ensures a significant decrease in the mass of structures which is very interesting for manufacturers in the automotive and aerospaceindustries. However, it is difficult to control the final properties of aluminum parts manufactured by SLM because many defects, suchas porosity, hot cracking, and surface roughness, are generated during the process. To better understand how to optimize theperformance of SLM aluminium parts, several studies were conducted during this work: An identification and selection of characterization methods well-adapted to the specificities of metallic materials developedby powder bed additive manufacturing processes was established. For instance, the comparison of different methods ofdetermining the relative density of parts showed the advantages and disadvantages of each of the techniques; A study of the SLM machine highlighted the influence of various factors (gas flow, positions of specimens on the constructionplate, or methods of depositing the powder) on the final properties of the produced parts. These elements have an impacton the density of the parts, their surface properties, and their mechanical properties. We found that the positioning of a pieceon the tray is a critical step in the preparation of a build that is not to be neglected; Parametric studies carried out on two types of aluminum alloys—AlSi7Mg0,6 and AM205—have shown that the chemicalcomposition of the aluminum alloy used has a significant influence on the set of operating parameters required tomanufacture an acceptable aluminum alloy part. The energy density, ψ, which is the ratio of the laser power to the productof the lasing speed, the hatching distance, and the layer thickness, is conventionally used for the optimization of the operatingconditions in SLM. Our experimental studies performed at different scales (1D and 3D) have shown the limits of this criterion.The combination of these results with the numerical simulation of the lasing of a single powder bead served as a basis forthe definition of an initial model, the final objective of which will be to optimize the choice of manufacturing parameters.
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Cassiopee Galy. Etude des interactions matériau/procédé en vue d'une optimisation des conditions opératoires du procédé de fabrication additive SLM sur des alliages d'aluminium pour des applications aéronautiques.. Mécanique [physics]. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0106⟩. ⟨tel-02325082⟩

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