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Étude et élaboration de matériaux ferroélectriques sans plomb pour le stockage de l'énergie électrique

Abstract : Ferroelectric materials with a high dielectric permittivity and low dielectric losses are very attractive for the realization of capacitors and for electrical energy storage. To improve the electrical energy density Wd, the structural and dielectric properties influence the ferroelectric parameters such as the maximum polarization Pm and the remanent polarization Pr under an applied electric field Em. This manuscript proposes to study the structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of ceramics derived from BaTiO₃ (BT) and SrTiO₃ (ST) as well as pure PVDF thick films and composites such as PVDF/BT and PVDF/BZT. The ceramics were synthesized by the solid state reaction reaction route and the sol-gel process. The subsitution in the A-sites or B-sites of the BaTiO₃ material with cations such Ca²⁺, Sr²⁺ and Zr⁴⁺ reduces the electrical energy density Wd and increases the energy storage efficiency η. The ceramic BaZr₀.₅Ti₀.₅O₃ (BZT0.5) has the highest energy storage efficiency (η=75%). The substitution in the A-sites of SrTiO₃ material with 40% of Ca²⁺ cations reduces the dielectric permittivity (ε'∽200), but is more stable over a wide frequency range [100 Hz -1 GHZ]. The Sr₀.₆Ca₀.₄TiO₃ ceramic prepared by sol-gel process has the highest electrical energy density (Wd = 0.149 J/cm³) under an electrical field Em = 105 kV/cm. The PVDF thick films were synthesized by Spin-Coating. The dielectric permittivity of pure PVDF thick films increases when increasing the thickness. The addition of BT and BTZ0.15 particles in the PVDF polymer matrix increases the dielectric permittivity of the composite PVDF/BT thick films (ε'=32 for 30% of BT particles) and PVDF/BZT0.15 ones (ε'=32 for 15% of BZT particles).
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Hicham Ait Laasri. Étude et élaboration de matériaux ferroélectriques sans plomb pour le stockage de l'énergie électrique. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale; Université Cadi Ayyad (Marrakech, Maroc). Faculté des sciences Semlalia, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018DUNK0528⟩. ⟨tel-02324940⟩

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