Mechanosignaling through Caveolae : A New Role for the Control of JAK-STAT Signaling

Abstract : Caveolae are small cup-shaped plasma membrane invaginations. These multifunctional organelles play a key role in cell mechanoprotection and cell signaling. Indeed our laboratory reported that caveolae have the ability to flatten out upon membrane tension increase, protecting cells from mechanical strains. Since caveolae play a key role in cell signaling we hypothesized that the mechano-dependent cycle of caveolae disassembly/reassembly may constitute a mechanical switch for signaling pathways. In this project, we elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the control of JAK-STAT signaling by caveolae mechanics. We showed that caveolin-1 (Cav1), an essential caveolar component is released and become highly mobile at the plasma membrane under mechanical stress. Considering that caveolae are important signaling hubs at the plasma membrane, we addressed the effects of the mechanical release of Cav1 on cell signaling. Using high throughput screening, we identified the JAK-STAT signaling pathway as a candidate. To further dissect the molecular mechanism underlying the control of JAK-STAT signaling by caveolae mechanics, we addressed the role of Cav1 in the control of JAK-STAT signaling stimulated by IFN-α. We found that Cav1 was a specific negative regulator of the JAK1 dependent STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the level of Cav1 interaction with JAK1 depended on mechanical stress. We could show that Cav1-JAK1 interaction was mediated by the caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD), abolishing JAK1 kinase activity, hence, interfering with STAT3 activation upon IFN-α stimulation. Altogether our results show that caveolae are mechanosignaling organelles that disassemble under mechanical stress, releasing non-caveolar Cav1, which binds to the JAK1 kinase and inhibits its catalytic activity, preventing thereby JAK-STAT signal transduction.
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Nicolas Tardif. Mechanosignaling through Caveolae : A New Role for the Control of JAK-STAT Signaling. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS337⟩. ⟨tel-02320973⟩

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