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Design, Scale-up and Optimization of Double Emulsion Processes

Abstract : Double emulsions can nowadays be found in a number of applications in different domains, like food, cosmetics, chemicals or biochemical. In food for instance, double emulsions may allow to encapsulate flavors or reduce the fat content. Yet, the literature is still lacking a comprehensive understanding of these systems. Modelling may improve the understanding of a system and allow optimizing the operating conditions in order to improve the product quality. In these systems, the product quality is determined by the encapsulation efficiency and the inner and outer droplet size distribution, which may affect the physical stability during storage. The objective of this work is to handle theoretical and experimental investigations of the phenomena occurring during both the preparation and the storage of double emulsions. The contribution of the work can therefore be divided into two parts. First of all, investigations of the parameters affecting the preparation step of double emulsions are handled, and models are proposed to describe them. Three processes were considered for the emulsification of the double emulsions, ultrasonication, Ultra-Turrax and a stirred vessel. The model is based on a population balance model of the outer droplets, including the kernels of breakage and coalescence combined with a leakage model of the inner droplets. The leakage of inner droplets is assumed to be governed by the breakage of the outer droplets. In order to be applicable in the different processes, the breakage models were adapted to different scales of turbulence, the dissipation subrange for ultrasonication and the inertial subrange for the Ultra-Turrax. The second contribution of the work concerns the investigation of the phenomena taking place during the storage of the double emulsions, including swelling and release. In this case, two population balance models of the inner and outer droplets were considered, including the phenomena of swelling of the inner, and so of the outer, droplets as well as the escape of the inner droplets by diffusion and coalescence with the external continuous phase. The swelling model takes into account the Laplace pressure that counterbalances the osmotic pressure which is the driving force for swelling. In the different steps of preparation or storage, the developed models allow the prediction of the droplet size distributions and the release rate
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Behnam Khadem Hamedani. Design, Scale-up and Optimization of Double Emulsion Processes. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université de Lyon, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1097⟩. ⟨tel-02319047⟩

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