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Comparaison de la pathogenèse hépatique des virus fièvre jaune et dengue dans un modèle d’hépatocytes humains dérivés de cellules souches

Abstract : Severe forms of infection with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are characterized by liver damage, with more severe symptoms observed during YFV infection. The aim of this thesis is to compare YFV and DENV infections in a model of human hepatocytes derived from stem cells (iHeps) in order to identify factors that could explain their difference in pathogenesis.First, we compared YFV tropism to the four DENV serotypes in 2D iHeps. We observed a low spread of DENV compared to YFV in both iHeps and primary hepatocytes. By using chimeric 17D/DENV strains, we demonstrate that this low propagation is linked to a low DENV entry efficiency in hepatocytes. We also studied infection in iHeps spheroids, metabolically closer to primary cells than 2D iHeps. A productive infection was observed with YFV only. The low accessibility of cells inside the spheroids could explained this result. Second, we studied cellular responses induced following infection by different viruses in 2D iHeps using an RNAseq approach. Preliminary results suggest a link between replication rate and the number of activated genes. The interferon response is detected earlier following YFV infection, but DENV induces a greater number of genes implicated in this pathway. Moreover, DENV-1 and DENV-4 up-regulate some genes involved in antigen presentation such as HLA-E and TAP-2, while YFV down-regulates genes encoding chemokines and adhesion molecules. Preliminary analysis of hepatic metabolism pathways reveals inhibition of the coagulation pathway induced by YFV infection, which is not observed during DENV infection. Similar observations have been described in vivo, at the protein level, confirming the relevance of the iHeps model
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Marion Genevois. Comparaison de la pathogenèse hépatique des virus fièvre jaune et dengue dans un modèle d’hépatocytes humains dérivés de cellules souches. Virologie. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1088⟩. ⟨tel-02316992⟩

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