IgA et rein : destructrice ou protectrice ? : Rôles de l'immunoglobuline A (IgA) dans deux pathologies rénales

Abstract : Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most synthetized immunoglobulin in mammals. IgA has ambivalent properties: it is implicated in the mechanisms of defense against pathogens but also in the immune tolerance of commensal microbiota. However, IgA can develop pathogenic properties. In the first part of my thesis, we studied the pathogenic effects of IgA. IgA deposits are the main characteristic of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). IgAN physiopathology is not yet clearly understood. The hypothesis of a glycosylation defect is strongly adapted. This defect can be due to IgA polymerization or antigenicity. It can also induce shedding of CD89 (IgA Fc receptor) or other factors. We studied the effect of variable region altered affinity, the light chain substitution and the association of IgA with CD89 on the development of kidney lesions and impairment of kidney function in four mouse models followed up during 12 months. In addition, we studied the physico-chemical properties of 28 IgA purified from patients with dysglobulinaemia and 28 chimeric IgA produced by hybridomas. The effect of these properties on the propensity of IgA for mesangial deposition was explored. In the second part, we studied the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties conferred by the overexpression of human IgA in a mouse model with systemic lupus (MRL/lpr model). In the last part, we contributed to the characterization of a transgenic mouse model producing IgA class 2 and to the study of the effect of IgA2-mediated signaling on B lymphocyte development. Altogether, obtained results show the pathogenic effect of low affinity-IgA on the development of IgA nephropathy. In addition, different analyses showed that molecular stability but not glycosylation profile is the determining factor for IgA deposition. On the other hand, IgA expression in lupus-prone mice extended their survival, delayed the onset of auto-immunity and ameliorated kidney functions in these animals which supports IgA anti-inflammatory properties. The study of IgA2-mediated signaling in the transgenic model showed the inhibitory effect of IgA2 on the early development of several B cell sub-populations. All of these results show the multiple effects of IgA which contribute on one hand to the pathogenesis of a complex disease (IgAN) and on the other hand to protection from autoimmunity, demonstrating the complexity of interactions and the regulatory character of this immunoglobulin.
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Batoul Wehbe. IgA et rein : destructrice ou protectrice ? : Rôles de l'immunoglobuline A (IgA) dans deux pathologies rénales. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges; Université libanaise, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0034⟩. ⟨tel-02316327⟩

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