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Apport de la morphométrie géométrique et de l'imagerie 3D intra-orale dans l'étude du shoveling des incisives centrales maxillaires

Abstract : The shoveling of the maxillary central incisor is a non-metric dental characteristic frequently used in anthropology as an indicator of population relations for its taxonomic and phylogenetic relevance for many decades. This dental morphological feature is defined as the degree of elevation of the mesial and distal marginal ridges on the lingual surface of the maxillary incisors, canines and mandibular incisors, with more pronounced pit-like forms. From the 19th century until today, several attempts have been made to classify and assess the shoveling differences between fossil and modern human populations, first using detailed descriptive approaches and later developing ordinal feature notation systems. The standard gold technique for shoveling analysis is based on a seven-grade ordinal scale that has been adapted and integrated into a formal system for scoring non-metric features of dental morphology: the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). This widely-used standard protocol is based on reference plaster plaques representing the casts of selected teeth showing a gradient of expression of a particular trait. Ordinal notation, even if controlled by strict definitions of characteristics, visual references, and observer experience, includes an inevitable element of subjectivity. Moreover, the conventional information support used by ASUDAS can lead to loss of information over time. Some researchers have attempted to reduce visual subjectivity by measuring the depth of lingual shoveling, but with little success in their results due to method accuracy problems. First, we developed a new quantitative morphometric approach to assess the shoveling variation of modern human maxillary central incisors (UI1). We analyzed by virtual imaging 87 modern human UI1 (Europe, Africa, Asia) and the 7 UI1 of the ASU-UI1 reference plaque using geometric morphometry and the positioning of sliding reference points. The results of the distribution of shoveling according to populations according to our new morphometric method are in close correlation with the distribution of shoveling widely described in the literature. In addition, our results showed some limitations in the use of ASUDAS plaques, suggesting that they do not necessarily represent an objective gradient of expression of this non-metric dental characteristic. [...]
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Delphine Carayon. Apport de la morphométrie géométrique et de l'imagerie 3D intra-orale dans l'étude du shoveling des incisives centrales maxillaires. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30221⟩. ⟨tel-02316121⟩

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