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Etude de la régulation de l’expression des ARN non-codants au cours de l’infection par des virus à ARN : Implications de la protéine KSRP dans la réplication du virus de l’Hépatite C et de la souche HCoV-229E des Coronavirus

Abstract : Résumé en anglaisRNA viruses have been the cause of many epidemics in recent decades. Despite major therapeutic advances, a majority of infection is currently orphan for treatment. The development of new broad spectrum antivirals is a therapeutic alternative to maximize the number of targeted viruses, minimize production costs and improve access to population. In order to find new cellular targets for this type of therapeutic approach, understanding the molecular mechanisms used by RNA viruses to infect the host is essential.Viruses exploit cellular factors to survive and to disseminate. Among those factors, microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lnCRNA) can participate to cellular antiviral response but can also be hijacked by the virus to improve the infection. These two families of non-coding RNA could interact with cellular RNA-binding protein (RBP) such as KSRP. This ubiquitous protein is involved in RNA expression control via its participation to pre-mRNA splicing, decay of AU-rich element mRNA and maturation of microRNAs. The functions and localization of KSRP are dependent of post- modification by the cellular kinases Akt, ATM and p38/MAPK.The aim of my thesis was to study the modulation of the expression of these two classes of non-coding RNA during infection by RNA viruses such as the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the HCoV-229E strain of the Coronaviruses. More specifically, we evaluated the involvement of KSRP in the regulation of non-coding RNAs essential for these infections.My research project began with the study of microRNA-122 (miR-122) the maturation. This miRNA is a proviral factor for HCV infection. We have shown that the Akt-dependent phosphorylation of S193-KSRP promoted the interaction of pri-miR-122 with the DROSHA / DGCR8 nuclear complex and thus was essential for the maturation of miR-122, finally promoting viral replication. We then investigated the role of KSRP phosphorylation by ATM and p38 / MAPK on viral replication and on miR-122 maturation. ATM phosphorylation does not seem to play a major role in these two parameters. In contrast, phosphorylation of KSRP on the T692 residue by p38 / MAPK kinase appears to play a positive role on viral replication.In a second step, by homology with the results obtained in the case of the HCV infection, we studied the role of KSRP during the infection with the HCoV-229E strain of Coronaviruses. After siKSRP transfection or exogenous expression of the KSRP protein, we were able to demonstrate that KSRP was a proviral cellular factor for HCoV-229E replication.In order to characterize the modulation of non-coding RNAs expression during HcoV-229E infection and to identify the non-coding RNAs whose expression could be regulated by KSRP, we performed two high-throughput sequencing ("NGS") assays. The analysis performed on infected and non-infected cells allowed us to identify all the miRNAs and lncRNAs whose expression was altered by the virus. We cross-examined these results with a second "NGS" performed on HCoV-229E infected cells inhibited for KSRP. We found that the expression of an InCARN (LinC00473) was modulated under both experimental conditions. We demonstrated a strong KSRP-dependent induction of LinC00473 expression at 24 h post-infection, then a decrease at 48 h post-infection. Inhibition of this factor results in decreased viral replication suggesting that LinC00473 is a proviral cell factor at the onset of infection.Our results have shown the proviral role of the KSRP protein during two viral infections (HCV and HCoV-229E of the coronaviruses). Its involvement in the regulation of RNA expression makes of KSRP an effective tool for discovering new non-coding RNA therapeutic targets for other viral infections
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Camille Baudesson. Etude de la régulation de l’expression des ARN non-codants au cours de l’infection par des virus à ARN : Implications de la protéine KSRP dans la réplication du virus de l’Hépatite C et de la souche HCoV-229E des Coronavirus. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PESC0007⟩. ⟨tel-02316051⟩

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