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Reconstruction 3D de l'environnement dynamique d'un véhicule à l'aide d'un système multi-caméras hétérogène en stéréo wide-baseline

Abstract : This Ph.D. thesis, which has been carried out in the automotive industry in association with Renault Group, mainly focuses on the development of advanced driver-assistance systems and autonomous vehicles. The progress made by the scientific community during the last decades in the fields of computer science and robotics has been so important that it now enables the implementation of complex embedded systems in vehicles. These systems, primarily designed to provide assistance in simple driving scenarios and emergencies, now aim to offer fully autonomous transport. Multibody SLAM methods currently used in autonomous vehicles often rely on high-performance and expensive onboard sensors such as LIDAR systems. On the other hand, digital video cameras are much cheaper, which has led to their increased use in newer vehicles to provide driving assistance functions, such as parking assistance or emergency braking. Furthermore, this relatively common implementation now allows to consider their use in order to reconstruct the dynamic environment surrounding a vehicle in three dimensions. From a scientific point of view, existing multibody visual SLAM techniques can be divided into two categories of methods. The first and oldest category concerns stereo methods, which use several cameras with overlapping fields of view in order to reconstruct the observed dynamic scene. Most of these methods use identical stereo pairs in short baseline, which allows for the dense matching of feature points to estimate disparity maps that are then used to compute the motions of the scene. The other category concerns monocular methods, which only use one camera during the reconstruction process, meaning that they have to compensate for the ego-motion of the acquisition system in order to estimate the motion of other objects. These methods are more difficult in that they have to address several additional problems, such as motion segmentation, which consists in clustering the initial data into separate subspaces representing the individual movement of each object, but also the problem of the relative scale estimation of these objects before their aggregation within the static scene. The industrial motive for this work lies in the use of existing multi-camera systems already present in actual vehicles to perform dynamic scene reconstruction. These systems, being mostly composed of a front camera accompanied by several surround fisheye cameras in wide-baseline stereo, has led to the development of a multibody reconstruction method dedicated to such heterogeneous systems. The proposed method is incremental and allows for the reconstruction of sparse mobile points as well as their trajectory using several geometric constraints. Finally, a quantitative and qualitative evaluation conducted on two separate datasets, one of which was developed during this thesis in order to present characteristics similar to existing multi-camera systems, is provided.
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Laurent Mennillo. Reconstruction 3D de l'environnement dynamique d'un véhicule à l'aide d'un système multi-caméras hétérogène en stéréo wide-baseline. Automatique / Robotique. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC022⟩. ⟨tel-02316022⟩

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