Plasticité de l'architecture aérienne du blé en réponse à la compétition pour la lumière au sein de cultures pures ou d'associations variétales : caractérisation expérimentale et développement d'un modèle 3D

Abstract : The understanding of the interactions between plants within heterogeneous crops could allow for a more efficient use of wheat varietal mixtures, as there is a gap of knowledge on the complementarity, synergy and competition that develop among varieties within these systems. Our study is focused on competition for light, and its impact on the above ground architecture of wheat, coupling experimental analysis and model development. We first characterized the plasticity of the aerial architecture in response to different sowing densities, for 20 contrasting genotypes of winter wheat. The number of axes per plant was shown to be the most plastic trait for all genotypes. We developed an individual-based model representing wheat growth, from the sowing to flowering. The model is composed of two parts: a descriptive part of the foliar development based on the ADEL-wheat model and a mechanistic part which accounts for the regulation of tillering by light. Tillering is regulated by two simple hypotheses: (1) tillering stops when a critical value of local Green Area Index (GAI) is reached, (2) a tiller dies if the amount of intercepted light falls below a critical threshold. A realistic tillering dynamics was simulated by our model over a wide range of sowing densities, with a good fit with experimental data. We also experimentally characterized the plasticity of plant architecture for eight wheat genotypes observed in various two-components varietal mixtures. Contrasted plastic responses were observed when compared to those expressed in pure stands, underlining the specificity of certain plant-plant interactions. These experiments confirmed that the cultivar mixtures generally contribute to an overyielding, particularly in low-input agriculture . Finally, our results revealed that variety mixtures including genotypes with different heights may provide an advantage to the taller genotype with limited tradeoff on the short genotype. This work contributed to the development of a simplified formalism for tillering process, allowing to explore and optimize complementarities / competitions between plants within variety mixtures. Ultimately, the model could be coupled with a genetic model, in order to better describe the impact of plant-to-plant interactions in the selective value of individuals in heterogeneous populations.
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Christophe Lecarpentier. Plasticité de l'architecture aérienne du blé en réponse à la compétition pour la lumière au sein de cultures pures ou d'associations variétales : caractérisation expérimentale et développement d'un modèle 3D. Interactions entre organismes. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS033⟩. ⟨tel-02314619v2⟩

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