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B. , User Subroutine: VUMAT

, This subroutine may interact with other utility subroutines or functions built-in in Abaqus. These auxiliary functions involve, for example, finding the invariants of stress and strain tensors as well as their principal values and directions. Other important subroutines include reading prescribed non-linear distribution of initial conditions (stress, pore pressure, solution-dependent state variables and void ratio) to run the analysis. All these user subroutines enable the definition of initial values according to coordinates and number for element and node variables. Users may also employ their own bank for utility functions, Abaqus/Explicit allows users to define their own constitutive model through a facility subroutine called VUMAT

, Abaqus calls the user-material subroutine at each Gauss point for which a user-defined material behavior is assigned. Particularly for the class of problems studied here, the arrays of strain increments (STRAININC), user-material properties (PROPS) and current/updated values of stresses (STRESSOLD/STRESSNEW) and current/updated solution-dependent