Epidémiologie du virus du Nil occidental au Liban

Abstract : West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) are two emerging arboviruses that have never been reported in Lebanon. They can be transmitted by Culex pipiens mosquito species including two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. During this project, we assessed the circulation of WNV among mosquitoes, human, horse and chicken populations in Lebanon. Moreover, we evaluated, under experimental conditions, the capacity of local Cx. pipiens biotypes to transmit both viruses.Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified and tested to detect WNV RNA. Besides, human, horse and chicken blood samples were collected and screened for WNV antibodies using an in-house ELISA and then confirmed by neutralization assay. Moreover, local Cx. pipiens specimens were experimentally infected with WNV lineage 1 or RVFV Clone 13 strain. The viral infection, dissemination and transmission were then estimated at different days post infection.The vector competence was compared between Cx. pipiens biotypes.Entomological results revealed that 87.2% of collected adult mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens. Screened mosquitoes were negative for WNV. Seroprevalence rates were 1.01% and 1.98% among humans and horses respectively. Besides, local Cx. pipiens were highly competent for WNV transmission and to a lesser extent to RVFV. The molestus biotype was able to transmit WNV earlier than pipiens biotype.The present study provides new evidence of a low circulation of WNV among human and horses in Lebanon. Cx. pipiens is the suspected vector and is experimentally competent to ensure transmission. Therefore, there is a need to establish surveillance program to predict and prevent potential outbreaks.
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Renée Zakhia. Epidémiologie du virus du Nil occidental au Liban. Virology. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI; Université Libanaise. Faculté des Sciences (Beyrouth, Liban), 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066466⟩. ⟨tel-02314613⟩

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