Étude de la cinétique chimique et des propriétés de transport d'un plasma d'arc SF6-C2F4 en déséquilibre thermique : application à l'étude des disjoncteurs haute tension

Abstract : Modelling a high voltage circuit breaker using a MHD model needs plasma properties databanks to simulate the electric arc behavior. The local thermodynamic equilibrium hypothesis is often used to calculate these properties. However, the equilibrium conditions are not satisfied near the walls or the electrodes, or during the zero crossing of the current. The thermal nonequilibrium considerably modify the chemistry and properties of the plasma. The study of these properties for a 2t plasma is the subject of this thesis. The first part of this thesis presents the industrial context at the origin of this study. Basics assumptions for the 2t hypothesis are then explained. In this section, special attention is given to the temperatures characteristic of the internal energy modes. Two sets of hypotheses concerning these temperatures are used in this work, and the choice of these hypotheses is discussed. The second part of this work is dedicated to the calculation of sf6-c2f4 plasma composition at 2t. This calculation will be done with two different methods: the first is based on the mass action law extended to 2t, and the second on a collisional-radiative calculation. Examples of compositions obtained with these two methods are presented. The hypotheses concerning the temperatures of populating of the internal energy levels are discussed in the light of these results. The third chapter of this thesis deals with the calculation of the thermodynamic properties at 2t of the plasma. The theoretical formulations of each of these properties are first recalled, and the results from these expressions are then presented and discussed, for the two methods of calculating the composition. The fourth chapter is dedicated to calculating the transport coefficients of a sf6-c2f4 plasma at 2t. This part is based on a bibliographic study of the already existing methods of calculation and the essential data to obtain these properties (collision integrals). For each property (viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity) the various calculation methods identified in the literature are compared. The choice of the most appropriate calculation technique is made by comparing the results to the ETL. Particular attention is paid to the calculation of the reactive part of the thermal conductivity, and a formulation adapted to the needs of this work is proposed. The results from these expressions are presented and discussed following the same logic when in the previous chapter.
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Gabriel Vanhulle. Étude de la cinétique chimique et des propriétés de transport d'un plasma d'arc SF6-C2F4 en déséquilibre thermique : application à l'étude des disjoncteurs haute tension. Plasmas. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30330⟩. ⟨tel-02314054⟩

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