F. Abdallah, L. Mijouin, and C. Pichon, Review Article Skin Immune Landscape : Inside and Outside the Organism, 2017.

Y. Achermann, E. J. Goldstein, T. Coenye, and M. E. Shirtliff, Propionibacterium acnes : from Commensal to Opportunistic Biofilm-Associated Implant Pathogen, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. p, vol.27, pp.419-440, 2014.

N. Akaza, H. Akamatsu, M. Kishi, H. Mizutani, I. Ishii et al., Effects of Propionibacterium acnes on various mRNA expression levels in normal human epidermal keratinocytes in vitro, J. Dermatol, pp.213-223, 2009.

N. Akaza, H. Akamatsu, Y. Sasaki, S. Takeoka, M. Kishi et al., Cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of healthy subjects differ by sex , body part and season, Japanese Dermatological Assoc, 2010.

R. G. Albuquerque, M. A. Rocha, E. Bagatin, S. Tufik, and M. L. Andersen, Could adult female acne be associated with modern life ?, Arch Dermatol Res, pp.683-688, 2014.

O. A. Alexeyev, B. Lundskog, R. Ganceviciene, R. H. Palmer, A. Mcdowell et al., Pattern of tissue invasion by Propionibacterium acnes in acne vulgaris, Journal of dermatological science. Netherlands, 2012.

O. A. Alexeyev and C. C. Zouboulis, Shooting at Skin Propionibacterium acnes : To Be or Not to Be on Target, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.133, pp.2292-2294, 2013.

A. Alexopoulos and G. P. Chrousos, Stress-related skin disorders, Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord, pp.295-304, 2016.

R. P. Allaker, J. Greenman, and R. H. Osborne, The production of inflammatory compounds by Propionibacterium acnes and other skin organisms, Br. J. Dermatolog, pp.175-183, 1987.

A. Allion, J. Baron, and L. Boulange-petermann, Impact of surface energy and roughness on cell distribution and viability, Biofouling, vol.22, pp.269-278, 2006.

F. J. Alvarez and R. E. Fyffe, Nociceptors for the 21st century, Curr. Rev. Pain, vol.4, pp.451-458, 2000.

J. Alverdy, C. Holbrook, F. Rocha, L. Seiden, R. L. Wu et al., Gut-derived sepsis occurs when the right pathogen with the right virulence genes meets the right host: evidence for in vivo virulence expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ann. Surg, vol.232, pp.480-489, 2000.

V. Amblee and C. J. Jeffery, Physical Features of Intracellular Proteins that Moonlight on the Cell Surface. PLoS One 1-16, 2015.

K. Amr, M. Abdel-hameed, K. Sayed, F. Nour-edin, and R. Hay, The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the gene for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma is associated with a lower Global Acne Grading System score in patients with acne vulgaris, Clin. Exp. DErmatol, vol.39, pp.741-745, 2014.

I. Ando, W. C. Chen, S. M. Clark, W. J. Cunliffe, B. Dreno et al., Acne, Dermatolog, 2002.

T. Ando, Y. Endo, M. Abel, and K. Kumagai, Stimulation of the Synthesis of Histamine and Putrescine in Mice by a Peptidoglycan of Bacteria, Microbiol. Immunol, vol.38, pp.209-215, 1994.

E. Andrès, J. Molinari, G. Péterszegi, B. Mariko, E. Ruszova et al., Pharmacological properties of rhamnose-rich polysaccharides , potential interest in age-dependent alterations of connectives tissues Propriétés pharmacologiques des polysaccharides riches en rhamnose et intérêt potentiel dans les altérations des tissus co, Pathol. Biol, vol.54, pp.420-425, 2006.

D. A. Antonopoulos, S. M. Huse, H. G. Morrison, T. M. Schmidt, M. L. Sogin et al., Reproducible Community Dynamics of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota following Antibiotic Perturbation, Infect. Immun, vol.77, pp.2367-2375, 2009.

M. K. Arora, S. Seth, S. Dayal, A. S. Trehan, and M. Seth, Serum lipid profile in female patients with severe acne vulgaris, Clin Lab, vol.60, pp.1201-1205, 2014.

A. Aryee and J. D. Edgeworth, Carriage, Clinical Microbiology and Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol, vol.409, pp.1-19, 2017.

G. G. Aubin, Propionibacterium acnes , an emerging pathogen : From acne to implant-infections , from phylotype to resistance, Médecine Mal. Infect, vol.44, pp.241-250, 2014.

M. Baensch, R. Frank, and J. Kohl, Conservation of the amino-terminal epitope of elongation factor T u in eubacteria and archaea, pp.2241-2246, 1998.

J. S. Barbieri, K. Wanat, and J. Seykora, Dermatopathology Skin : Basic Structure and Function, Pathobiology of Human Disease, 2014.

M. C. Bastos, H. Ceotto, M. L. Coelho, and J. S. Nascimento, Staphylococcal Antimicrobial Peptides : Relevant Properties and Potential Biotechnological Applications, Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol, pp.38-61, 2009.

A. Basu, K. E. Shields, C. S. Eickhoff, D. F. Hoft, and M. N. Yap, Thermal and Nutritional Regulation of Ribosome Hibernat ion in Staphylococcus aureus, J. Bacteriol, 0200.

G. Baviera, M. C. Leoni, L. Capra, F. Cipriani, G. Longo et al., Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema, Biomed Res. Int, 2014.

F. Beauvais and F. Joly, In vitro effects of Uriage spring water on the apoptosis, pp.446-450, 1998.

B. D. Beck, Polymerization of the Bacterial Elongation Factor for Protein Synthesis , EF-Tu, Eur. J. Biochem, vol.502, pp.495-502, 1979.

A. Beiras-fernández, R. Gallego, T. García-caballero, C. Diéguez, and A. Beiras, Merkel cells , a new localization of preproorexin and orexin receptors, J. Anat, pp.117-122, 2004.

M. Bek-thomsen, H. B. Lomholt, C. Scavenius, J. J. Enghild, and H. Bruggemann, Proteome analysis of human sebaceous follicle infundibula extracted from healthy and acne-affected skin, PLoS One, vol.9, 2014.

Y. Belkaid, T. ;. Hand, and J. A. Segre, Role of the Microbiota in Immunity and inflammation Yasmine, Role Belkaid, vol.157, pp.954-960, 2014.

M. Bellon-fontaine, J. Rault, and C. J. Van-oss, Microbial adhesion to solvents: a novel method to determine the electrondonor/electron-acceptor or Lewis acid-base properties of microbial cells, Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces, vol.7, pp.1272-1278, 1996.

R. Bensadoun, P. Humbert, J. Krutman, T. Luger, S. Seite et al., Daily baseline skin care in the prevention , treatment , and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients : recommendations from a multinational expert panel, Cancer Manag. Res, pp.401-408, 2013.

D. H. Bergey, F. C. Harrison, R. S. Breed, B. W. Hammer, and F. M. Huntoon, , 1923.

R. Bermúdez, J. M. Lorenzo, S. Fonseca, I. Franco, and J. Carballo, Strains of Staphylococcus and Bacillus isolated from traditional sausages as producers of biogenic amines, Front. Microbiol, vol.3, pp.1-6, 2012.

M. V. Berridge and A. S. Tan, Characterization of the cellular reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT): subcellular localization, substrate dependence, and involvement of mitochondrial electron transport in MTT reduction, Arch. Biochem. Biophys, vol.303, pp.474-482, 1993.

C. Berrier, A. Garrigues, G. Richarme, and A. Ghazi, Elongation factor Tu and DnaK are transferred from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of Escherichia coli during osmotic downshock presumably via the mechanosensitive channel mscL, J. Bacteriol, vol.182, pp.248-251, 2000.

C. Beylot, N. Auffret, F. Poli, J. Claudel, M. Leccia et al., Propionibacterium acnes : an update on its role in the pathogenesis of acne, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol, pp.271-278, 2014.

S. Bhambri, J. Q. Rosso, . Del, and A. Bhambri, Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris : recent advances, J. Drugs Dermatology, 2009.

K. Biaggini, C. Barbey, V. Borrel, M. Feuilloley, P. Dechelotte et al., The pathogenic potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens MFN1032 on enterocytes can be modulated by serotonin, substance P and epinephrine, Arch. Microbiol, vol.197, pp.983-990, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01938115

R. Bissonnette, J. E. Risch, K. J. Mcelwee, P. Marchessault, C. Bolduc et al., Changes in serum free testosterone, sleep patterns, and 5-alpha-reductase type I activity influence changes in sebum excretion in female subjects, Skin Res. Technol, vol.21, pp.47-53, 2015.

S. Björklund, J. Engblom, K. Thuresson, and E. Sparr, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Glycerol and urea can be used to increase skin permeability in reduced hydration conditions, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci, vol.50, pp.638-645, 2013.

P. Blanchard, W. T. Festuccia, V. P. Houde, P. St-pierre, S. Brûlé et al., Major involvement of mTOR in the PPAR ? -induced stimulation of adipose tissue lipid uptake and fat accretion, ASBMB, vol.53, pp.1117-1125, 2012.

R. A. Bojar and K. T. Holland, Acne and Propionibacterium Acnes, Clin. Dermatol, 2004.

P. Bordat, R. Tarroux, and D. Guerrero, Eaux thermales, Actifs et additifs en cosmétologie, 3ème édition, Editions T, 2006.

V. Borrel, A. V. Gannesen, M. Barreau, C. Gaviard, C. Duclairoir et al., Adaptation of acneic and non acneic strains of Cutibacterium acnes to sebum like environment, 2019.

E. Bouffartigues, J. A. Moscoso, R. Duchesne, T. Rosay, L. Fito-boncompte et al., The absence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprF protein leads to increased biofilm formation through variation in c-di-GMP level, Front. Microbiol, vol.6, p.630, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01166905

A. Bouslimani, C. Porto, C. M. Rath, M. Wang, Y. Guo et al., Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D, 2015.

I. L. Boxman and C. Ruwhof, Role of fibroblasts in the regulation of proinflammatory interleukin IL-1 , IL-6 and IL-8 levels induced by keratinocyte-derived IL-1, Arch Dermatol Res, 1996.

L. Boyanova, Anaerobe Stress hormone epinephrine ( adrenaline ) and norepinephrine ( noradrenaline ) effects on the anaerobic bacteria, Anaerobe, vol.44, pp.13-19, 2017.

J. M. Boyce, Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals, Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control, 2016.

K. A. Brogden, Antimicrobial peptides : Pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria, Nature, vol.3, pp.238-250, 2005.

H. Brüggemann, A. Henne, F. Hoster, H. Liesegang, A. Wiezer et al., The Complete Genome Sequence of Propionibacterium Acnes , a Commensal of Human Skin, Science, p.671, 2004.

H. Brüggemann, H. B. Lomholt, and M. Kilian, The flexible gene pool of Propionibacterium acnes, Mob. Genet. Elements, vol.2, pp.145-148, 2012.

H. Brüggemann, H. B. Lomholt, H. Tettelin, and M. Kilian, CRISPR/cas Loci of Type II Propionibacterium acnes Confer Immunity against Acquisition of Mobile Elements Present in Type I P. acnes, PLoS One, vol.7, p.34171, 2012.

E. Brzuszkiewicz, J. Weiner, A. Wollherr, A. Thurmer, J. Hupeden et al., Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics of Propionibacterium acnes, PLoS One, vol.6, 2011.

B. Louis, G. M. Sundaram, and R. , Exposome: time for transformative research, Stat. Med, vol.31, pp.2569-2575, 2012.

C. G. Burkhart and C. N. Burkhart, Expanding the microcomedone theory and acne therapeutics: Propionibacterium acnes biofilm produces biological glue that holds corneocytes together to form plug, J AM ACAD DERMATOL, 2007.

J. L. Burton, W. J. Cunliffe, I. Stafford, and S. Shuster, The prevalence of acne vulgaris in adolescence, Br. J. Dermatol, vol.85, 1971.

J. Busek and B. Ash, Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30, Off. J. Eur. Union, 2009.

A. L. Byrd, Y. Belkaid, and J. A. Segre, The human skin microbiome, Nat. Publ. Gr, vol.16, pp.143-155, 2018.

C. Callewaert, P. Hutapea, T. Van-de-wiele, and N. Boon, Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community, Arch. Dermatol. Res, vol.306, pp.701-710, 2014.

E. Camera, M. Dahlhoff, M. Ludovici, C. C. Zouboulis, and M. R. Schneider, Letter to the Editor Perilipin 3 modulates specific lipogenic pathways in SZ95 sebocytes TGs, Exp. Dermatol, pp.901-903, 2014.

K. A. Capone, S. E. Dowd, G. N. Stamatas, and J. Nikolovski, Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.131, pp.2026-2032, 2011.

J. G. Caporaso, J. Kuczynski, J. Stombaugh, K. Bittinger, F. D. Bushman et al., QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data, Nat. Methods, vol.7, pp.335-336, 2010.

M. Cappel, D. Mauger, and D. Thiboutot, Correlation Between Serum Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, and Dihydrotestosterone and Acne Lesion Counts in Adult Women, ARCH DERMATOL, vol.141, 2005.

T. W. Carion, C. R. Mcwhirter, D. K. Grewal, and E. A. Berger, Efficacy of VIP as Treatment for Bacteria-Induced Keratitis Against Multiple Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains, Immunol. Microbiol. Effic, 2015.

P. Catroux, N. Billoni, J. Cotovio, B. Buan, and G. Rubinstenn, Cosmetic composition that mimics sebum and the use thereof, United States Pat. Appl. Publ. US, 2005.

F. P. Cengiz, B. Cevirgen-cemil, N. Emiroglu, A. Bahali, and N. Onsun, Acne located on the trunk, whey protein supplementation: Is there any association?, Heal. Promot. Perspect, vol.7, pp.106-108, 2017.

, Annual number and percent distribution of ambulatory care visits by setting type according to diagnosis group: United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009.

D. Cerdan and M. Monsigny, Human keratinocyte membrane lectins : characterization and modu-lation of their expression by cytokines, Biol Cell, pp.35-42, 1991.

O. Chai, E. Han, Y. Ho, S. Hee, H. Tae et al., Regulatory Peptides The role of mast cells in atrial natriuretic peptide-induced cutaneous in fl ammation, Regul. Pept, vol.167, pp.79-85, 2011.

B. Chandrasekharan, B. G. Nezami, and S. Srinivasan, Emerging neuropeptide targets in inflammation : NPY and VIP, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, vol.30322, 2013.

C. Chehoud, S. Rafail, A. S. Tyldsley, J. T. Seykora, J. D. Lambris et al., Complement modulates the cutaneous microbiome and in fl ammatory milieu, 2013.

W. Chen, C. Yang, H. Sheu, H. Seltmann, and C. C. Zouboulis, Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Transcription Factors in Cultured Human Sebocytes, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.121, pp.441-447, 2003.

K. Chiller, B. A. Selkin, and G. J. Murakawa, Skin Micro ¯ ora and Bacterial Infections of the Skin, J. Investig. Dermatology Symp. Proc, vol.6, pp.170-174, 2001.

Y. B. Chiou and U. Blume-peytavi, Stratum Corneum Maturation. Ski. Pharmacol Physiol, 2004.

C. W. Choi, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, Facial sebum affects the development of acne , especially the distribution of inflammatory acne, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol, pp.301-306, 2013.

E. Choi, M. Demerjian, D. Crumrine, B. E. Brown, T. Mauro et al., Glucocorticoid blockade reverses psychological stress-induced abnormalities in epidermal structure and function, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, vol.94121, pp.1657-1662, 2006.

J. Choi, M. S. Piao, J. Lee, J. S. Oh, I. Kim et al., Propionibacterium acnes Stimulates Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression through Tumor Necrosis Factor-a in Human Dermal Fibroblasts, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.128, pp.846-854, 2008.

M. A. Choudhry and I. H. Chaudry, Alcohol intoxication and post-burn complications, Front. Biosci, pp.998-1005, 2006.

G. J. Christensen and H. Brüggemann, Bacterial skin commensals and their role as host guardians, Benef. Microbes, vol.5, pp.201-215, 2014.

C. M. Chronnell, L. R. Ghali, R. S. Ali, A. G. Quinn, D. B. Holland et al., Human b Defensin-1 and -2 Expression in Human Pilosebaceous Units: Upregulation in Acne Vulgaris Lesions, Soc. Investig. Dermatology, vol.1, pp.1120-1125, 2001.

M. Chung, J. H. Tonry, A. Narayanan, N. P. Manes, R. S. Mackie et al., Bacillus anthracis Interacts with Plasmin ( ogen ) to Evade C3b-Dependent Innate Immunity, PLoS One, vol.6, pp.1-10, 2011.

G. Cizza, A. H. Marques, F. Eskandari, I. C. Christie, S. Torvik et al., Elevated neuroimmune biomarkers in sweat patches and plasma of premenopausal women with major depressive disorder in remission: the POWER study, Biol Psychiatry, vol.64, pp.907-911, 2008.

A. K. Clark, K. N. Haas, and R. K. Sivamani, Edible Plants and Their Influence on the Gut Microbiome and Acne, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.18, 2017.

M. B. Clarke, D. T. Hughes, C. Zhu, E. C. Boedeker, and V. Sperandio, The QseC sensor kinase : A bacterial adrenergic receptor, 2006.

C. Clavaud, R. Jourdain, A. Bar-hen, M. Tichit, C. Bouchier et al., Dandruff Is Associated with Disequilibrium in the Proportion of the Major Bacterial and Fungal Populations Colonizing the Scalp, PLoS One, vol.8, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01709161

J. C. Clifford, J. N. Rapicavoli, and M. C. Roper, A Rhamnose-Rich O-Antigen Mediates Adhesion , Virulence , and Host Colonization for the Xylem-Limited Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact, vol.26, pp.676-685, 2013.

T. Coenye, K. Honraet, B. Rossel, and H. J. Nelis, Biofilms in Skin Infections : Propionibacterium acnes and Acne Vulgaris, Infect. Disord. -Drug Targets, 2015.

T. Coenye, E. Peeters, and H. J. Nelis, Biofilm formation by Propionibacterium acnes is associated with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and increased production of putative virulence factors, Res. Microbiol, vol.158, pp.386-392, 2007.

A. L. Cogen, V. Nizet, and R. L. Gallo, Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence?, Br J Dermatol, vol.158, pp.442-455, 2008.

A. L. Cogen, K. Yamasaki, K. M. Sanchez, R. A. Dorschner, Y. Lai et al., Selective Antimicrobial Action Is Provided by Phenol-Soluble Modulins Derived from Staphylococcus epidermidis , a Normal Resident of the Skin, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.130, pp.192-200, 2009.

E. B. Cohen and N. N. Rossen, Acne vulgaris in connection with the use of progestagens in a hormonal IUD or a subcutaneous implant, Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd, vol.147, pp.2137-2139, 2003.

R. J. Cohen, B. A. Shannon, J. E. Mcneal, T. Shannon, and K. L. Garrett, Propionibacterium acnes associated with inflammation in radical prostatectomy specimens: a possible link to cancer evolution?, J. Urol, vol.173, pp.1969-1974, 2005.

M. Colina, M. Khodeir, and F. Trotta, Propionibacterium acnes and SAPHO syndrome : A case report and literature review and SAPHO syndrome : a case report and literature review, Clin. Exp. Rheumatol, 2007.

A. Conen, L. Walti, A. Merlo, U. Fluckiger, M. Battegay et al., Characteristics and treatment outcome of cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associatedinfections in adults: a retrospective analysis over an 11-year period, ClinInfect Dis, vol.47, pp.73-82, 2008.

T. Cong, D. Hao, X. Wen, X. Li, G. He et al., Structure , function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome, Arch. Dermatol. Res, vol.0, pp.207-214, 2012.

L. Cordain, S. Lindeberg, M. Hurtado, K. Hill, S. B. Eaton et al., Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization, Arch. Dermatol, vol.138, pp.1584-1590, 2002.

S. Corvec, M. Dagnelie, A. Khammari, and B. Dréno, Taxonomy and phylogeny of Cutibacterium ( formerly Propionibacterium ) acnes in, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol, vol.146, pp.26-30, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02099793

E. K. Costello, C. L. Lauber, M. Hamady, N. Fierer, J. I. Gordon et al., Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time, Science, vol.326, pp.1694-1697, 2009.

C. C. Coughlin, A. C. Yan, S. M. Swink, M. S. Joseph, H. Bs et al., The preadolescent acne microbiome : A prospective , randomized , pilot study investigating characterization and effects of acne therapy, Pediatr. Dermatol, pp.661-664, 2017.

Z. Csukas, B. Banizs, and F. Rozgonyi, Studies on the cytotoxic effects of Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from cornea, Microb. Pathog, vol.36, pp.171-174, 2004.

H. R. Cunliffe and E. Ingham, IgG subclasses specific to Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionihacterium acnes in patients with acne vulgaris, Br. J. Dermutolog, vol.0, pp.730-733, 1997.

F. E. Curry, J. F. Clark, Y. Jiang, M. Kim, R. H. Adamson et al., The role of atrial natriuretic peptide to attenuate inflammation in a mouse skin wound and individually perfused rat mesenteric microvessels, Physiol. Rep, vol.4, pp.1-11, 2016.

S. Cussotto, K. V. Sandhu, T. G. Dinan, and J. F. Cryan, The Neuroendocrinology of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: A Behavioural Perspective, Front. Neuroendocrinol, vol.51, pp.80-101, 2018.

M. Dagnelie, A. Khammari, B. Dreno, and S. Corvec, Cutibacterium acnes molecular typing: time to standardize the method, Clin. Microbiol. Infect, vol.24, pp.1149-1155, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01810309

A. Dagorn, A. Chapalain, L. Mijouin, M. Hillion, C. Duclairoir-poc et al., Effect of GABA, a bacterial metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens surface properties and cytotoxicity, Int. J. Mol. Sci, vol.14, pp.12186-12204, 2013.

M. Dahlhoff, M. H. Angelis, . De, E. Wolf, and M. R. Schneider, Letter to the Editor Ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor hyperactivation increases sebaceous gland size and sebum secretion in mice, Exp. Dermatol, pp.667-669, 2013.

M. Dahlhoff, E. Camera, M. Picardo, C. C. Zouboulis, L. Chan et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta PLIN2 , the major perilipin regulated during sebocyte differentiation , controls sebaceous lipid accumulation in vitro and sebaceous gland size in vivo, BBA -Gen. Subj, vol.1830, pp.4642-4649, 2013.

I. M. Dambuza and G. D. Brown, C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments, Curr. Opin. Immunol, vol.32, pp.21-27, 2015.

C. De-la-fuente-núñez, J. Mertens, J. Smit, and R. E. Hancock, The bacterial surface layer provides protection against antimicrobial peptides, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.78, pp.5452-5456, 2012.

L. M. De-young, J. M. Young, S. J. Ballaron, B. S. Doreen, A. Spires et al., Intradermal Injection of Propionibacterium acnes: A Model of Inflammation Relevant to Acne, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.1, pp.394-398, 1984.

J. H. Defeu-soufo, C. Reimold, U. Linne, T. Knust, J. Gescher et al., Bacterial translation elongation factor EFTu interacts and colocalizes with actin-like MreB protein, vol.107, 2010.

I. Dekio, D. Rajendram, E. Morita, S. Gharbia, and H. N. Shah, Genetic diversity of Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from human skin in Japan and comparison with their distribution in Europe, J. Med. Microbiol, vol.61, pp.622-630, 2012.

F. Delahaye, S. Fol, M. Celard, F. Vandenesch, J. Beaune et al., Arch. Mal. Coeur Vaiss, vol.98, pp.1212-1218, 2005.

S. Delgado, A. Suarez, and B. Mayo, Identification, typing and characterisation of Propionibacterium strains from healthy mucosa of the human stomach, Int. J. Food Microbiol, vol.149, pp.65-72, 2011.

D. Deplewski and R. L. Rosenfield, Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factors Have Different Effects on Sebaceous Cell Growth and Differentiation, Endocrinology, vol.140, pp.4089-4094, 1999.

V. Deramo and T. Ting, Treatment of Propionibacterium acnes endoph-thalmitis, Curr Opin Ophthalmol, vol.12, pp.255-259, 2001.

L. Dethlefsen, S. Huse, M. L. Sogin, and D. A. Relman, The Pervasive Effects of an Antibiotic on the Human Gut Microbiota , as Revealed by Deep 16S rRNA Sequencing, PLoS Biol, vol.6, 2008.

A. Di-landro, S. Cazzaniga, F. Parazzini, V. Ingordo, F. Cusano et al., Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol, vol.67, pp.1129-1135, 2012.

M. G. Dominguez-bello, E. K. Costello, M. Contreras, M. Magris, and G. Hidalgo, Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns, PNAS, vol.107, pp.11971-11975, 2010.

M. G. Dominguez-bello, K. M. Jesus-laboy, . De, N. Shen, L. M. Cox et al., Partial restoration of the microbiota of cesarean-born infants via vaginal microbial transfer, Ann. Neurol, vol.22, pp.376-381, 2006.

R. M. Donlan, Biofilm Formation : A Clinically Relevant Microbiological Process, Healthc. Epidemiol, vol.33, 2001.

P. C. Dorrestein, R. L. Gallo, and R. Knight, Previews Microbial Skin Inhabitants : Friends Forever, Cell, vol.165, pp.771-772, 2016.

H. C. Douglas and S. E. Gunter, , pp.15-23, 1946.

M. Doutre, Le système immunitaire cutané Cutaneous immune system, pp.257-262, 2009.

D. T. Downing, D. Ph, M. E. Stewart, D. Ph, P. W. Wertz et al., Essential fatty acids and acne, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol, vol.14, issue.86, p.70025, 1986.

D. R. Drake, K. A. Brogden, D. V. Dawson, and P. W. Wertz, Thematic review series: skin lipids. Antimicrobial lipids at the skin surface, J. Lipid Res, vol.49, pp.4-11, 2008.

B. Dréno, Données récentes sur l ' épidémiologie de l ' acné Recent data on epidemiology of acne, pp.49-51, 2010.

B. Dréno, Anatomie , immunologie de la peau et de ses annexes Anatomie , immunologie de la peau et de ses annexes, Ann Dermatol Venereol, pp.149-152, 2008.

B. Dréno, R. Martin, D. Moyal, J. B. Henley, A. Khammari et al., Skin microbiome and acne vulgaris : Staphylococcus , a new actor in acne, Exp. Dermatol, pp.798-803, 2016.

B. Dreno and F. Poli, Epidemiology of acne, Dermatology, vol.206, pp.7-10, 2003.

E. V. Egelseer, I. Schocher, M. Sa, and U. W. Sleytr, The S-Layer from Bacillus stearothermophilus DSM 2358 Functions as an Adhesion Site for a High-Molecular-Weight Amylase, J. Bacteriol, vol.177, pp.1444-1451, 1995.

I. A. El-karim, G. J. Linden, D. F. Orr, and F. T. Lundy, Antimicrobial activity of neuropeptides against a range of microorganisms from skin, oral, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract sites, J. Neuroimmunol, vol.200, pp.11-16, 2008.

J. Enault, T. Saguet, F. Yvergnaux, and M. G. Feuilloley, PS291 ® , a rhamnose rich polysaccharide obtained by fermentation , is reducing Propionibacterium acnes adhesion and biofilm formation activity, 2014.

C. Engin, Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on wound contraction in denervated and normal rat skin: a preliminary report, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol.101, pp.1887-1890, 1998.

B. N. Evans, M. I. Rosenblatt, L. O. Mnayer, K. R. Oliver, and I. M. Dickerson, CGRP-RCP , a Novel Protein Required for Signal Transduction at Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide and Adrenomedullin Receptors, J. Biol. Chem, vol.275, pp.31438-31443, 2000.

D. M. Evans, K. M. Kirk, D. R. Nyholt, C. Novac, and N. G. Martin, Teenage acne is influenced by genetic factors, Br. J. Dermatol, vol.152, pp.579-581, 2005.

G. Fabbrocini, M. Bertona, O. Picazo, H. Pareja-galeano, G. Monfrecola et al., Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 normalises skin expression of genes implicated in insulin signalling and improves adult acne, Benef. Microbes, vol.7, pp.625-630, 2016.

J. J. Faith, J. J. Faith, J. L. Guruge, M. Charbonneau, S. Subramanian et al., The Long-Term Stability of the Human Gut Microbiota. Science, p.80, 2013.

L. Fassi-fehri, T. N. Mak, B. Laube, V. Brinkmann, L. A. Ogilvie et al., Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in diseased prostates and its inflammatory and transforming activity on prostate epithelial cells, Int. J. Med. Microbiol, vol.301, pp.69-78, 2011.

M. Faure and E. Drapier-faure, Acné et contraception hormonale Acne and hormonal contraceptives, Ann. Dermatol, 2019.

H. R. Ferdowsian and S. Levin, Does diet really affect acne?, Skin Therapy Lett, vol.15, issue.5, pp.1-2, 2010.

S. Ferrari, I. Ruffilli, M. Colaci, A. Antonelli, C. Ferri et al., Advances in Medical Sciences CXCL10 in psoriasis, Adv. Med. Sci, vol.60, pp.349-354, 2015.

C. Feuillolay, S. Pecastaings, C. Le-gac, C. Fiorini-puybaret, J. Luc et al., A Myrtus communis extract enriched in myrtucummulones and ursolic acid reduces resistance of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms to antibiotics used in acne vulgaris, Phytomedicine, vol.23, pp.307-315, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02135666

M. G. Feuilloley, Antidromic neurogenic activity and cutaneous bacterial flora, Semin Immunopathol, 2018.

M. G. Feuilloley, A. Doléans-jordheim, and J. Freney, Précis de Bactériologie Clinique, Précis de Bactériologie Clinique 3rd Edn, pp.1-15, 2015.

N. Fierer, M. Hamady, C. L. Lauber, and R. Knight, The influence of sex , handedness , and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria, vol.105, pp.17994-17999, 2008.

K. Findley and E. A. Grice, The Skin Microbiome : A Focus on Pathogens and Their Association with Skin Disease, PLoS One, vol.10, pp.10-12, 2014.

S. Fitz-gibbon, S. Tomida, B. Chiu, L. Nguyen, C. Du et al., Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.133, pp.2152-2160, 2013.

A. Fleming, On the etiology of acne vulgaris and its treatments, Lancet, vol.173, p.72096, 1909.

V. Foulongne, V. Sauvage, C. Hebert, O. Dereure, J. Cheval et al., Human skin microbiota: high diversity of DNA viruses identified on the human skin by high throughput sequencing, PLoS One, vol.7, 2012.

E. M. Fozo and E. A. Rucks, The Making and Taking of Lipids: The Role of Bacterial Lipid Synthesis and the Harnessing of Host Lipids in Bacterial Pathogenesis, Adv. Microb. Physiol, vol.69, pp.51-155, 2016.

I. M. Freedberg, M. Tomic-canic, M. Komine, and M. Blumenberg, Keratins and the Keratinocyte Activation Cycle, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.116, pp.633-640, 2001.

C. Frenard, M. Dagnelie, A. Khammari, M. Saint-jean, A. Boisrobert et al., Do Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus define two different types of folliculitis?: Bacteriological study of scalp folliculitis, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01813330

R. L. Gallo and L. V. Hooper, Epithelial antimicrobial defence of the skin and intestine, Nat Rev Immunol, vol.12, pp.503-516, 2012.

R. L. Gallo and T. Nakatsuji, Microbial Symbiosis with the Innate Immune Defense System of the Skin, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.131, 1974.

R. Ganceviciene, M. Böhm, S. Fimmel, C. C. Zouboulis, R. Ganceviciene et al., The role of neuropeptides in the multifactorial pathogenesis of acne vulgaris The role of neuropeptides in the multifactorial pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, Dermatoendocrinol, 1980.

R. Ganceviciene, V. Graziene, S. Fimmel, and C. C. Zouboulis, Involvement of the corticotropin-releasing hormone system in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris R, Br. J. Dermatol, pp.345-352, 2009.

A. V. Gannesen, V. Borrel, L. Lefeuvre, A. I. Netrusov, V. K. Plakunov et al., Effect of two cosmetic compounds on the growth , biofilm formation activity , and surface properties of acneic strains of Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, 2018.

Z. Gao, G. I. Perez-perez, Y. Chen, and M. J. Blaser, Quantitation of major human cutaneous bacterial and fungal populations, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.48, pp.3575-3581, 2010.

A. Garcia-caballero, R. Gallego, T. Garcia-caballero, M. Fraga, M. Blanco et al., Cellular and subcellular distribution of 7B2 in porcine Merkel cells, Anat. Rec, vol.248, pp.159-163, 1997.

S. Z. Ghodsi, H. Orawa, and C. C. Zouboulis, Prevalence , Severity , and Severity Risk Factors of Acne in High School Pupils : A Community-Based Study, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.129, pp.2136-2141, 2009.

P. U. Giacomoni, T. Mammone, and M. Teri, Gender-linked differences in human skin, J. Dermatol. Sci, vol.55, pp.144-149, 2009.

T. C. Gilchrist, The etiology of acne vulgaris, J. Cutan. Dis, vol.21, pp.107-120, 1903.

T. C. Gilchrist, A bacteriological and microscopical study of over 300 vesicular and pustular lesions of the skin, with a research upon the etiology of acne vulgaris, Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rept, vol.9, pp.409-430, 1900.

E. J. Giltay and L. J. Gooren, Effects of Sex Steroid Deprivation / Administration on Hair Growth and Skin Sebum Production in Transsexual, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, vol.85, 2000.

J. L. Goldberg, T. S. Dabade, S. A. Davis, S. R. Feldman, D. Ph et al., Changing Age of Acne Vulgaris Visits : Another Sign of Earlier Puberty ?, Pediatr. Dermatology, vol.28, pp.645-648, 2011.

H. P. Gollnick, A. Y. Finlay, and N. Shear, Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. Can we define acne as a chronic disease? If so, how and when? Am, J. Clin. Dermatol, vol.9, pp.279-284, 2008.

O. Gouin, N. Lebonvallet, K. L. Herondelle, C. Gall-ianotto, . Le et al., Self-maintenance of neurogenic inflammation contributes to a vicious cycle in skin, Exp. Dermatol, pp.723-726, 2015.

V. Goulden, C. H. Mcgeown, and W. J. Cunliffe, The familial risk of adult acne: a comparison between first-degree relatives of affected and unaffected individuals, Br. J. Dermatol, vol.141, pp.297-300, 1999.

G. M. Graham, M. D. Farrar, K. T. Holland, and E. Ingham, Cutaneous Biology Proinflammatory cytokine production by human keratinocytes stimulated with Propionibacterium acnes and P . acnes GroEL, Br. J. Dermatol, pp.421-428, 2004.

P. A. Grange, J. Raingeaud, V. Calvez, and N. Dupin, Nicotinamide inhibits Propionibacterium acnes -induced IL-8 production in keratinocytes through the NF-k B and MAPK pathways, J. Dermatol. Sci, vol.56, pp.106-112, 2009.

E. A. Grice, The skin microbiome: potential for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cutaneous disease, Semin Cutan Med Surg, vol.33, pp.98-103, 2014.

E. A. Grice, H. H. Kong, S. Conlan, C. B. Deming, J. Davis et al., Topographical and Temporal Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome, vol.324, pp.1190-1192, 2009.

E. A. Grice, H. H. Kong, G. Renaud, A. C. Young, C. S. Program et al., A diversity profile of the human skin microbiota, Genome Res, 2008.

E. A. Grice and J. A. Segre, The skin microbiome, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.9, pp.244-253, 2011.

S. Guo and L. A. Dipietro, Factors Affecting Wound Healing, J Dent Res, pp.219-229, 2010.

M. Guyard-nicodeme, A. Bazire, G. Hemery, T. Meylheuc, D. Molle et al., Outer membrane modifications of Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37 in response to hyperosmolarity, J. Proteome Res, vol.7, pp.1218-1225, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00846221

H. Haeberle, M. Fujiwara, J. Chuang, M. M. Medina, M. V. Panditrao et al., Molecular profiling reveals synaptic release machinery in Merkel cells, PNAS, vol.101, 2004.

J. Hall and A. Civatte, Contribution à la bacteriologie des glandes sébacees, Bost. Med. Surg. J, vol.4, pp.184-188, 1907.

R. E. Hancock and M. G. Scott, The role of antimicrobial peptides in animal defenses, PNAS, vol.97, 2000.

G. D. Hannigan, J. S. Meisel, A. S. Tyldsley, Q. Zheng, B. P. Hodkinson et al., The human skin double-stranded DNA virome: topographical and temporal diversity, genetic enrichment, and dynamic associations with the host microbiome, MBio, vol.6, pp.1578-1593, 2015.

C. J. Hansen, K. K. Burnell, and K. A. Brogden, Antimicrobial activity of Substance P and Neuropeptide Y against laboratory strains of bacteria and oral microorganisms, J. Neuroimmunol, vol.177, pp.215-218, 2006.

W. Hartschuh, E. Weihe, and U. Egner, Chromogranin A in the mammalian Merkel cell: cellular and subcellular distributio n, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.93, pp.641-648, 1989.

W. Hartschuh, E. Weihe, and N. Yanaihara, Immunohistochemical analysis of chromogranin A and multiple peptides in the mammalian Merkel cell: further evidence for its paraneuronal function?, Arch. Histol. Cytol, vol.52, pp.423-431, 1989.

H. F. Hartwell and E. C. Streeter, Bacillus of Acne -B. Acnes. Bost. Med. Surg. J, vol.161, p.882, 1909.

L. He, W. Wu, J. Yang, H. Cheng, X. Zuo et al., Two new susceptibility loci 1q24.2 and 11p11.2 confer risk to severe acne, Nat. Commun, vol.5, p.2870, 2014.

M. Healy, J. Huong, T. Bittner, M. Lising, S. Frye et al., Microbial DNA typing by automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.43, pp.199-207, 2005.

M. Heidt, F. Marks, K. Mu, G. Neufang, and G. Fu, Abnormal differentiation of epidermis in transgenic mice constitutively expressing cyclooxygenase-2 in skin, PNAS, vol.98, 2001.

M. I. Herane and I. Ando, Acne in infancy and acne genetics, Dermatology, vol.206, pp.24-28, 2003.

D. J. Hess, M. J. Henry-stanley, and C. L. Wells, Antibacterial Activity of the Natural Surfactant Glycerol Monolaurate in Preventing Development of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms, J. Surg. Res, vol.186, p.688, 2014.

S. Higaki, T. Kitagawa, M. Kagoura, M. Morohashi, and T. Yamagishi, Correlation between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes, lipase activity and rash degree in acne patients, J. Dermatol, vol.27, pp.519-522, 2000.

S. Higaki, M. Nakamura, M. Morohashi, and T. Yamagishi, Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and susceptibility to minocycline and Keigai-rengyo-to, Int. J. Dermatol, vol.43, pp.103-107, 2004.

M. Hillion, L. Mijouin, T. Jaouen, M. Barreau, P. Meunier et al., Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations, vol.2, pp.953-961, 2013.

N. Hirschhausen, T. Schlesier, M. A. Schmidt, F. Götz, G. Peters et al., A novel staphylococcal internalization mechanism involves the major autolysin Atl and heat shock cognate protein Hsc70 as host cell receptor, Cell. Microbiol, vol.12, pp.1746-1764, 2010.

U. Hoffler, Production of hyaluronidase by propionibacteria from different origins, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Orig. A, vol.245, pp.123-129, 1979.

C. Holland, T. N. Mak, U. Zimny-arndt, M. Schmid, T. F. Meyer et al., Proteomic identification of secreted proteins of Propionibacterium acnes, BMC Microbiol, 2010.

K. T. Holland and R. A. Bojar, What is Their Influence on the Skin Microflora ?, Am J Clin Dermatol, vol.3, pp.445-449, 2002.

A. Holmberg, R. Lood, M. Morgelin, B. Soderquist, E. Holst et al., Biofilm formation by Propionibacterium acnes is a characteristic of invasive isolates, Clin Microbiol Infect, 2009.

K. Holmberg and U. Forsum, Identification of Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bacterionema, Rothia, and Propionibacterium species by defined immunofluorescence, Appl. Microbiol, vol.25, pp.834-843, 1973.

C. J. Holmes, J. K. Plichta, R. L. Gamelli, and K. A. Radek, Dynamic Role of Host Stress Responses in Modulating the Cutaneous Microbiome : Implications for Wound Healing and Infection, Adv. WOUND CARE, vol.4, pp.24-37, 2014.

D. H. Hug, D. D. Dunkerson, and J. K. Hunter, The degradation of L-histidine and trans-and cis-urocanic acid by bacteria from skin and the role of bacterial cis-urocanic acid isomerase, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, vol.50, issue.99, p.72, 1999.

J. Hunyadkurti, Z. Feltoti, B. Horvath, M. Nagymihaly, A. Voros et al., Complete genome sequence of Propionibacterium acnes type IB strain 6609, J. Bacteriol, vol.193, pp.4561-4562, 2011.

S. J. Hussey, J. Purves, N. Allcock, V. E. Fernandes, P. S. Monks et al., Air pollution alters Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms, antibiotic tolerance and colonisation, Environ. Microbiol, vol.19, pp.1868-1880, 2017.

H. Ichikawa, M. Kataoka, J. Hiramatsu, M. Ohmori, Y. Tanimoto et al., Quantitative analysis of propionibacterial DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage cells from patients with sarcoidosis, SARCOIDOSIS Vasc. Diffus. LUNG Dis, pp.15-20, 2008.

K. Iinuma, T. Sato, N. Akimoto, N. Noguchi, and M. Sasatsu, Involvement of Propionibacterium acnes in the Augmentation of Lipogenesis in Hamster Sebaceous Glands In Vivo and In Vitro, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.129, pp.2113-2119, 2009.

J. R. Ilse, H. L. Greenberg, D. D. Bennett, A. Eady, C. E. Goodwin et al., Cunliffe, 1992. Pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin-1 alpha-like bioactivity are present in the majority of open comedones in acne vulgaris, Soc. Investig. Dermatology, 2008.

T. Inoue, Y. Miki, S. Kakuo, A. Hachiya, and T. Kitahara, Expression of steroidogenic enzymes in human sebaceous glands, J. Endocrinol, 2014.

O. Isard, A. Knol, N. Castex-rizzi, A. Khammari, M. Charveron et al., Cutaneous induction of corticotropin releasing hormone by Propionibacterium acnes extracts, Dermatoendocrinol, vol.1, pp.96-99, 2009.

O. Isard, J. M. Nguyen, A. Khammari, N. Castex-rizzi, A. C. Knol et al., Propionibacterium acnes Activates the IGF-1 / IGF-1R System in the Epidermis and Induces Keratinocyte Proliferation, Soc. Investig. Dermatology, 2011.

T. Iwase, Y. Uehara, H. Shinji, A. Tajima, H. Seo et al., Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization, Nature, vol.465, pp.346-349, 2010.

A. C. Jahns, H. Eilers, and O. A. Alexeyev, Anaerobe Transcriptomic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes bio fi lms in vitro, Anaerobe, vol.42, pp.111-118, 2016.

A. C. Jahns, B. Lundskog, I. Dahlberg, N. C. Tamayo, A. Mcdowell et al., No link between rosacea and Propionibacterium acnes, APMIS, vol.120, pp.922-925, 2012.

A. C. Jahns, B. Lundskog, R. Ganceviciene, R. H. Palmer, I. Golovleva et al., An increased incidence of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in acne vulgaris : a case -control study, Br. J. Dermatol, pp.50-58, 2012.

A. C. Jahns, C. Oprica, I. Vassilaki, I. Golovleva, R. H. Palmer et al., Simultaneous visualization of Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum with immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization, Anaerobe, vol.23, pp.48-54, 2013.

A. G. James, C. J. Austin, D. S. Cox, D. Taylor, and R. Calvert, Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillar y odour, FEMS Microbiol Eco, vol.83, pp.527-540, 2013.

U. Jappe, E. Ingham, J. Henwood, and K. T. Holland, Cutaneous Biology Propionibacterium acnes and in ¯ ammation in acne, 2002.

, P . acnes has T-cell mitogenic activity. Br. Assoc. Dermatologists, pp.202-209

V. Jarrousse, A. Khammari, N. Castex-rizzi, M. Charveron, and B. Dréno, Modulation of integrins and W laggrin expression by Propionibacterium acnes extracts on keratinocytes, Arch. Dermatol. Res, pp.441-447, 2007.

C. J. Jeffery, Moonlighting proteins, TIBS, vol.0004, pp.8-11, 1999.

J. Jeong and D. Kim, Effects of cosmetics and their preservatives on the growth and composition of human skin microbiota, J Soc Cosmet. Sci Korea, 2015.

A. H. Jeremy, D. B. Holland, S. G. Roberts, K. F. Thomson, and W. J. Cunli, Inflammatory Events Are Involved in Acne Lesion Initiation, Soc. Investig. Dermatology, pp.20-27, 1996.

H. Jiang, C. Y. Li, L. Zhou, B. Lu, Y. Lin et al., Acne patients frequently associated with abnormal plasma lipid profile, J. Dermatol, pp.296-299, 2015.

J. L. Johnson and C. S. Cummins, Cell wall composition and deoxyribonucleic acid similarities among the anaerobic coryneforms, classical propionibacteria, and strains of Arachnia propionica, J. Bacteriol, vol.109, pp.1047-1066, 1972.

A. Jovi?, B. Marinovi?, K. Kostovi?, and R. ?eovi?, The Impact of Pyschological Stress on Acne, Acta Dermatovenerol Croat, vol.25, pp.133-141, 2017.

G. H. Joyce and D. C. White, Effect of benzo(a) pyrene and piperonyl butoxide on formation of respiratory system, phospholipids, and carotenoids of Staphylococcus aureus, J. Bacteriol, vol.106, pp.403-411, 1971.

Q. Ju, S. Fimmel, N. Hinz, R. Stahlmann, L. Xia et al., 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters sebaceous gland cell differentiation in vitro, Exp. Dermatol, vol.7, pp.320-325, 2003.

Q. Ju, S. Fimmel, N. Hinz, R. Stahlmann, L. Xia et al., 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters sebaceous gland cell differentiation in vitro, Exp. Dermatol, vol.7, pp.320-325, 2003.

S. Jugeau, I. Tenaud, A. C. Knol, V. Jarrousse, G. Quereux et al., Induction of toll-like receptors by Propionibacterium acnes, Cutan. Biol, pp.1105-1113, 2005.

L. Juhlin and G. Michaëlsson, Fibrin microclot formation in patients with acne, Acta Derm Venerol, vol.63, pp.538-540, 1983.

G. W. Jung, J. E. Tse, I. Guiha, and J. Rao, Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne, J. Cutan. Med. Surg, vol.17, pp.114-122, 2013.

C. M. Kahler, M. Herold, and C. J. Wiedermann, Substance P: a competence factor for human fibroblast proliferation that induces the release of growth-regulatory arachidonic acid metabolites, J. Cell. Physiol, vol.156, pp.579-587, 1993.

T. Kaisho and S. Akira, Toll-like receptor function and signaling, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol, vol.117, pp.979-87, 2006.

K. Kamisango, H. Fujii, Y. Yanagihara, I. Mifuchi, and I. Azuma, Structures of peptidoglycans of Propionibacterium, Microbiol. Immunol, vol.27, pp.635-640, 1983.

S. Kang, S. Cho, J. H. Chung, C. Hammerberg, G. J. Fisher et al., Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Degradation Mediated by Activated Transcription Factors Nuclear Factor-? B and Activator Protein-1 in Inflammatory Acne Lesions in Vivo, Am. J. Pathol, vol.166, pp.1691-1699, 2005.

M. H. Karavolos, K. Winzer, P. Williams, and C. M. Khan, Pathogen espionage: multiple bacterial adrenergic sensors eavesdrop on host communication systems, Mol. Microbiol, vol.87, pp.455-465, 2013.

G. Kasimatis, S. Fitz-gibbon, S. Tomida, M. Wong, and H. Li, Analysis of Complete Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes Reveals a Novel Plasmid and Increased Pseudogenes in an Acne Associated Strain, Biomed Res. Int, 2013.

D. A. Keire and T. G. Fletcher, The Conformation of Substance P in Lipid Environments, Biophys. J, vol.70, 1996.

H. Kelhala, R. Palatsi, N. Fyhrquist, S. Lehtimaki, J. P. Vayrynen et al., IL-17/Th17 pathway is activated in acne lesions, PLoS One, vol.9, 2014.

M. Kilian, C. F. Scholz, and H. B. Lomholt, Multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.50, pp.1158-1165, 2012.

J. Kim, Review of the innate immune response in acne vulgaris: activation of Toll-like receptor 2 in acne triggers inflammatory cytokine responses, Dermatology, vol.211, pp.193-198, 2005.

J. Kim, M. Ochoa, S. R. Krutzik, S. Uematsu, A. J. Legaspi et al., Activation of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Acne Triggers Inflammatory Cytokine Responses, J. Immunol, 2002.

M. Kishishita, T. Ushijima, Y. Ozaki, and Y. Ito, Biotyping of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from normal human facia l skin, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.38, pp.585-589, 1979.

M. Kistowska, S. Gehrke, D. Jankovic, K. Kerl, A. Fettelschoss et al., IL-1 b Drives Inflammatory Responses to Propionibacterium acnes In Vitro and In Vivo, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.134, 2014.

H. Komatsu, S. Enjouji, A. Ito, T. Ohama, and K. Sato, Prostaglandin E 2 Inhibits Proteinase-Activated Receptor 2-Signal Transduction through Regulation of Receptor Internalization, 2012.

H. H. Kong and J. A. Segre, Skin Microbiome : Looking Back to Move Forward, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.132, pp.933-939, 2012.

A. D. Kostic, M. R. Howitt, and W. S. Garrett, Exploring host -microbiota interactions in animal models and humans, GENES Dev, pp.701-718, 2013.

O. Krizanova, P. Babula, and K. Pacak, Stress, catecholaminergic system and cancer, Stress, vol.19, pp.419-428, 2016.

I. Kurokawa and H. Gollnick, Monoclonal Antibody Labeling for Cytokeratins and Filaggrin in the Hutnan Pilosebaceous Unit of Normal, Seborrhoeic and Acne Skin. Soc. Investig. Dermatology, vol.566, issue.571, 1988.

A. Kutlar, GLEE-ful for sickle cell pain, P Attack of the T-cell clones. Blood, vol.122, pp.2019-2021, 2013.

H. H. Kwon and D. H. Suh, Recent progress in the research about Propionibacterium acnes strain diversity and acne : pathogen or bystander ?, Int. J. Dermatol, pp.1196-1204, 2016.

N. Lacey, S. Ní, and R. Frank, Demodex Mites -Commensals , Parasites or Mutualistic Organisms, Dermatology, vol.7, pp.128-130, 2011.

B. Ladizinski, R. Mclean, K. C. Lee, and D. J. Elpern, The human skin microbiome, Int. J. Dermatol, pp.1177-1179, 2014.

J. E. Lai-cheong and J. A. Mcgrath, Structure and function of skin , hair and nails Key points. Medicine (Baltimore), vol.45, pp.347-351, 2017.

Y. Lai, A. L. Cogen, K. A. Radek, H. J. Park, T. Daniel et al., Activation of TLR2 by a Small Molecule Produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis Increases Antimicrobial Defense against Bacterial Skin Infections, J Invest Dermatol, vol.130, pp.2211-2221, 2010.

Y. Lai and R. L. Gallo, AMPed Up immunity: how antimicrobial peptides have multiple roles in immune defense, Trends Immunol, vol.30, pp.131-141, 2009.

Y. Lai, A. Nardo, . Di, T. Nakatsuji, A. Leichtle et al., Commensal bacteria regulate TLR3-dependent inflammation following skin injury, Nat Med, vol.15, pp.1377-1382, 2009.

E. T. Landis, S. Ba, A. Davis, A. T. Ma, S. Md et al., Top dermatologic diagnoses by age. Dermatology, 2014.

A. Langdon, N. Crook, and G. Dantas, The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation, Genome Med, 2016.

B. Lange-asschenfeldt, D. Marenbach, C. Lang, A. Patzelt, M. Ulrich et al., Distribution of Bacteria in the Epidermal Layers and Hair Follicles of the Human Skin, Ski. Pharmacol Physiol, pp.305-311, 2011.

E. A. Larkin, R. J. Carman, T. Krakauer, and B. G. Stiles, Staphylococcus aureus : The Toxic Presence of a Pathogen Extraordinaire, Curr. Med. Chem, pp.4003-4019, 2009.

M. S. Latuga, A. Stuebe, and P. C. Seed, A Review of the Source and Function of Microbiota in Breast Milk, Source Funct. Microbiota Breast Milk, pp.68-73, 2014.

S. N. Lawson, Phenotype and function of somatic primary afferent nociceptive neurones with C-, Adelta-or Aalpha/betafibres, Exp Physiol, vol.87, pp.239-244, 2002.

K. Y. Le and M. Otto, Quorum-sensing regulation in staphylococci -an overview, Front. Microbiol, vol.6, pp.1-8, 2015.

D. Lee, K. Yamasaki, J. Rudsil, C. C. Zouboulis, G. Tae et al., Sebocytes Express Functional Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides and Can Act to Kill Propionibacterium Acnes, J Invest Dermatol, vol.128, pp.1863-1866, 2008.

H. J. Lee, S. E. Jeong, S. Lee, S. Kim, H. Han et al., Effects of cosmetics on the skin microbiome of facial ch eeks with different hydration levels, vol.7, pp.557-00557, 2017.

S. E. Lee, L. J. Kim, S. Kyoo, J. Eun, and J. H. Yoon, Protease-activated receptor-2 mediates the expression of in X ammatory cytokines , antimicrobial peptides , and matrix metalloproteinases in keratinocytes in response to Propionibacterium acnes, Arch. Dermatol. Res, 2010.

W. J. Lee, S. L. Kim, K. C. Lee, M. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Jang et al., Effects of Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate on the Expression of Inflammatory Biomarkers after Treatment of Cultured Sebocytes with Propionibacterium acnes or Ultraviolet B Radiation, Ann. Dermatol, vol.28, pp.129-132, 2016.

O. Lesouhaitier, T. Clamens, T. Rosay, F. Desriac, M. Louis et al., Host Peptidic Hormones Affecting Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Virulence, J. Innate Immun, pp.1-15, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01930188

O. Lesouhaitier, W. Veron, A. Chapalain, A. Madi, A. Blier et al., Gram-Negative Bacterial Sensors for Eukaryotic Signal Molecules, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01938270

J. J. Leyden, K. J. Mcginley, O. H. Mills, and A. M. Kligma, Age-related changes in the resident bacterial flora of the human face, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.65, pp.379-381, 1975.

Y. Lin, A. , D. R. Guan, S. Mamanova, L. Mcdowall et al., A combination of improved differential and global RNA-seq reveals pervasive transcription initiation and events in all stages of the life-cycle of functional RNAs in Propionibacterium acnes, a major contributor to wide-spread human disease, BMC Genomics, vol.14, p.620, 2013.

J. C. Linnes, H. Ma, and J. D. Bryers, Giant extracellular matrix binding protein expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis is regulated by biofilm formation and osmotic pressure, Curr. Microbiol, vol.66, pp.627-633, 2013.

A. Liu, A. M. Archer, M. B. Biggs, and J. A. Papin, Growth-altering microbial interactions are responsive to chemical context, PLoS One, vol.12, p.164919, 2017.

D. H. Lloyd, J. Viac, D. Werling, C. A. Rème, and H. Gatto, Role of sugars in surface microbe -host interactions and, pp.197-204, 2007.

L. Lombardo, M. Foti, O. Ruggia, and A. Chiecchio, Increased Incidence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth During Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy, vol.8, pp.504-508, 2010.

H. B. Lomholt and M. Kilian, Population Genetic Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes Identifies a Subpopulation and Epidem ic Clones Associated with Acne, PLoS One, vol.5, 2010.

D. Lortscher, S. Admani, N. Satur, and L. F. Eichenfield, Hormonal Contraceptives and Acne: A Retrospective Analysis of 2147 Patients, J. Drugs Dermatol, vol.15, pp.670-674, 2016.

D. Loveman, R. Noojin, and C. Winkler, Comparative studies of the enteric bacterial flora in acne vulgaris, J. invest Dermatol, vol.25, pp.135-142, 1955.

J. Lu, M. Li, J. Huang, L. Gao, Y. Pan et al., , 2018.

, Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, vol.43, pp.157-162

P. H. Lu and C. H. Hsu, Body mass index is negatively associated with acne lesion counts in Taiwanese women with postadolescent acne, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venerol, 2014.

N. T. Luk, M. Hui, H. S. Lee, L. H. Fu, Z. H. Liu et al., Antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes among acne patients in a regional skin centre in Hong Kong, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol, vol.27, pp.31-36, 2013.

M. Lyte, Microbial endocrinology and infectious disease in the 21st century, TRENDS Microbiol, vol.12, 2004.

M. Lyte and S. Ernst, Catecholamine induced growth of gram negative bacteria, Life Sci, vol.50, pp.203-212, 1992.

P. Lyte, R. Sur, A. Nigam, and M. D. Southall, Heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes is capable of inducing inflammatory responses in skin, Exp. Dermatol, pp.1070-1072, 2009.

S. N. Mahmood and W. P. Bowe, Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit, J. Drugs Dermatol, vol.13, pp.428-435, 2014.

M. C. Maiden, J. A. Bygraves, E. Feil, G. Morelli, J. E. Russell et al., Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.95, pp.3140-3145, 1998.

T. N. Mak, M. Schmid, E. Brzuszkiewicz, G. Zeng, R. Meyer et al., Comparative genomics reveals distinct host-interacting traits of three major human-associated propionibacteria, BMC Genomics, 2013.

E. Makrantonaki, K. Vogel, S. Fimmel, M. Oeff, H. Seltmann et al., Interplay of IGF-I and 17 b -estradiol at agespecific levels in human sebocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, Exp. Gerontol, vol.43, pp.939-946, 2008.

S. Maksimovic, Y. Baba, and E. A. Lumpkin, Neurotransmitters and synaptic components in the Merkel cell-neurite, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1279, pp.13-21, 2013.

J. G. Marks and J. J. Miller, 2-Structure and Function of the Skin, Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology, pp.2-10, 2019.

R. R. Marples, Dermatological Sex , Constancy , and Skin Bacteria, Arch Dermatol Res, pp.317-320, 1982.

M. E. Mcbride, W. C. Duncan, and J. M. Knox, The Environment and the Microbial Ecology of Human Skin antibacg ateiacl, PLIED Environ. Microbiol, vol.33, pp.603-608, 1977.

A. Mcdowell, Over a Decade of recA and tly Gene Sequence Typing of the Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes: What Have We Learnt? Microorganisms 6, 2017.

A. Mcdowell, E. Barnard, J. Liu, H. Li, and S. Patrick, Emendation of Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes (Deiko et al. 2015) and proposal of Propionibacterium acnes type II as Propionibacterium acnes subsp. defendens subsp. nov, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol, vol.66, pp.5358-5365, 2016.

A. Mcdowell, E. Barnard, I. Nagy, A. Gao, S. Tomida et al., An expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme for propionibacterium acnes: investigation of "pathogenic", "commensal" and antibiotic resistant strains, PLoS One, vol.7, 2012.

A. Mcdowell, A. Gao, E. Barnard, C. Fink, P. I. Murray et al., A novel multilocus sequence typing scheme for the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes and characterization of type I cell surface-associated antigens, Microbiology, vol.157, 1990.

A. Mcdowell, A. L. Perry, P. A. Lambert, and S. Patrick, A new phylogenetic group of Propionibacterium acnes, J. Med. Microbiol, vol.57, pp.218-224, 2008.

A. Mcdowell, S. Valanne, G. Ramage, M. M. Tunney, J. V. Glenn et al., Propionibacterium acnes types I and II represent phylogenetically distinct groups, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.43, pp.326-334, 2005.

J. P. Mcfadden, B. S. Baker, A. V. Powles, and L. Fry, Psoriasis and streptococci : the natural selection of psoriasis revisited, Br. J. Dermatol, pp.929-937, 2009.

B. Melnik, T. Jansen, and S. Grabbe, Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem, J. Dtsch Dermatiol. Ges, vol.5, pp.110-117, 2007.

B. C. Melnik, Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products, Nestle Nutr. Workshop Ser. Pediatr. Program, vol.67, pp.131-145, 2011.

B. C. Melnik, S. M. John, and G. Schmitz, Over-stimulation of insulin / IGF-1 signaling by Western diet may promote diseases of civilization : lessons learnt from Laron syndrome, Nutr. Metab. (Lond), vol.8, pp.2-5, 2011.

B. C. Melnik and G. Schmitz, Role of insulin , insulin-like growth factor-1 , hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, Exp. Dermatol, pp.833-841, 2009.

B. C. Melnik and C. C. Zouboulis, Potential role of FoxO1 and mTORC1 in the pathogenesis of Western diet-induced acne, Exp. Dermatol, pp.311-315, 2013.

K. D. Mena and C. P. Gerba, Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, vol.201, pp.71-115, 2009.

L. Mijouin, M. Hillion, Y. Ramdani, T. Jaouen, C. Duclairoir-poc et al., Effects of a skin neuropeptide (substance p) on cutaneous microflora, PLoS One, vol.8, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01843930

L. S. Miller, E. A. Eady, R. W. Lacey, J. H. Cove, D. N. Joanes et al., Sequential antibiotic therapy for acne promotes the carriage of resistant staphylococci on the skin of contacts, J. Antimicrob. Chemother, pp.829-837, 1996.

L. Misery, S. Boussetta, T. Nocera, and C. Taieb, Sensitive skin in, Europe. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol, pp.376-381, 2009.

S. K. Mishra and M. A. Hoon, The Molesworth, E.H., 1910. The sultural charateristics of the microbacillus of acne, Br. Med. J, vol.340, pp.1227-1229, 2013.

C. G. Moreira, R. Russell, A. A. Mishra, S. Narayanan, J. M. Ritchie et al., Bacterial Adrenergic Sensors Regulate Virulence of Enteric Pathogens in the Gut, MBio, vol.7, 2016.

K. Mourelatos, E. A. Eady, W. J. Cunliffe, S. M. Clark, and J. H. Cove, Temporal changes in sebum excretion and propionibacterial colonization in preadolescent children with and without acne, Br. J. Dermatol, pp.22-31, 2007.

M. Mousli, A. Chahdi, B. Emadi-khiav, F. Joly, and Y. Landry, Inhibitory effect of Uriage spring water on peptide-induced histamine release from human and rat cutaneous mast cell, Nouv. Dermatologiques, vol.15, pp.307-312, 1996.

M. Muszer, M. Noszczyn, K. Kasperkiewicz, and M. Skurnik, Human Microbiome : When a Friend Becomes an Enemy, Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp, 2015.

A. N'diaye, A. Gannesen, V. Borrel, O. Maillot, J. Enault et al., Substance P and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide : Key Regulators of Cutaneous Microbiota Homeostasis, Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne), vol.8, pp.1-7, 2017.

A. N'diaye, C. Leclerc, T. Kentache, and J. Hardouin, Skin-bacteria communication : Involvement of the neurohormone Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide ( CGRP ) in the regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence, Nat. Publ. Gr. 1-15, 2016.

A. N'diaye, L. Mijouin, M. Hillion, S. Diaz, and Y. Konto-ghiorghi, Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence : Implication for Skin Homeostasis Bacterial Strains and Culture Conditions, Front. Microbiol, vol.7, pp.1-15, 2016.

S. F. Nabavi, A. Di-lorenzo, M. Izadi, E. Sobarzo-sanchez, M. Daglia et al., Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries, Nutrients, vol.7, pp.7729-7748, 2015.

M. Nagaoka, K. Kamisango, H. Fujii, K. Uchikawa, I. Sekikawa et al., Structure of acidic polysaccharide from cell wall of Propionibacterium acnes strain C7, J. Biochem, vol.97, pp.1669-1678, 1985.

I. Nagy, F. Jasson, A. C. Nol, T. Zuliani, and A. Khammari, Different strains of Propionibacterium acnes modulate differently the cutaneous innate immunity, Exp. Dermatol, vol.4, pp.587-592, 2013.

I. Nagy, A. Pivarcsi, K. Kis, A. Koreck, L. Bodai et al., Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokines / chemokines in human sebocytes, Microbes Infect, vol.8, pp.2195-2205, 2006.

I. Nagy, A. Pivarcsi, A. Koreck, M. Szell, E. Urban et al., Distinct Strains of Propionibacterium acnes Induce Selective Human b -Defensin-2 and Interleukin-8 Expression in Human Keratinocytes Through Toll-Like Receptors, Soc. Investig. Dermatology, pp.931-938, 2005.

S. Naik, N. Bouladoux, C. Wilhelm, M. J. Molloy, W. Kastenmuller et al., The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin, /ncomms2441.The Nakatsuji, vol.337, pp.1-16, 2012.

T. Nakatsuji, M. C. Kao, L. Zhang, C. C. Zouboulis, R. L. Gallo et al., Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.130, pp.985-994, 2010.

T. Nakatsuji, M. C. Kao, L. Zhang, C. C. Zouboulis, R. L. Gallo et al., Sebum Free Fatty Acids Enhance the Innate Immune Defense of Human Sebocytes by Upregulating ?-Defensin-2 Expression, J Invest Dermatol, vol.130, pp.985-994, 2011.

T. Nakatsuji, Y. Liu, C. Huang, R. L. Gallo, and C. Huang, Vaccination Targeting a Surface Sialidase of P . acnes : Implication for New Treatment of Acne Vulgaris, PLoS One, vol.3, 2008.

T. Nakatsuji, D. C. Tang, L. Zhang, R. L. Gallo, and C. Huang, Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor and Host Acid Sphingomyelinase Contribute to Bacterial Virulence : Potential Targets for Inflammatory Acne Treatment, PLoS One, vol.6, 2011.

, NAMCS Factsheet for dermatology, NAMCS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010.

A. A. Navarini, M. A. Simpson, M. Weale, J. Knight, I. Carlavan et al., Genome-wide association study identifies three novel susceptibility loci for severe Acne vulgaris, Nat. Commun, vol.5, p.4020, 2014.

C. Niemann and C. Niemann, Differentiation of the sebaceous gland Differentiation of the sebaceous gland, Dermatoendocrinol, 1980.

I. A. Nikolaev and V. K. Plakunov, City of microbes" or an analogue of multicellular organisms?, 2007.

, Mikrobiologiia, vol.76, pp.149-163

O. I. Niyonsaba, H. Ogawa, I. Nagaoka, and H. Defense, Human b -defensin-2 functions as a chemotactic agent for tumour necrosis factor-a -treated human neutrophils, Immunology, 2004.

K. Nordlind, E. C. Azmitia, and A. Slominski, The skin as a mirror of the soul: exploring the possible roles of serotonin, Exp. Dermatol, vol.17, pp.301-311, 2008.

D. A. Norris, Structure and function of the skin, Twenty Fou. ed, Goldman's Cecil Medicine, 2012.

A. Nowacka, S. Douezan, and L. Wads, Small polar molecules like glycerol and urea can preserve the fluidity of lipid bilayers Bibliographie 292 under dry conditions, 2012.

A. N. Nozhevnikova, E. A. Botchkova, and V. K. Plakunov, , 2015.

, Mikrobiologiia, vol.84, pp.623-644

S. Numata, H. Akamatsu, N. Akaza, Y. Sasaki, S. Takeoka et al., Quantitative eff ect of face washing on cutaneous resident microbiota in female subjects who wear make-up, J. Dermatol, 2012.

S. Numata, H. Akamatsu, N. Akaza, A. Yagami, S. Nakata et al., Analysis of Facial Skin-Resident Microbiota in Japanese Acne Patients, Dermatology, vol.228, pp.86-92, 2014.

G. A. O'toole, Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay, J. Vis. Exp, 2011.

J. Oh, A. L. Byrd, M. Park, H. H. Kong, J. A. Segre et al., Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome Article Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome, 2016.

K. Ohtaa, M. Kajiyaa, T. Zhua, H. Nishia, H. Mawardia et al., Antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes on the skin of patients with moderate to severe acne in Stockholm, Additive Oprica, vol.233, pp.155-164, 2004.

C. Oprica, S. Lofmark, B. Lund, C. Edlund, L. Emtestam et al., Genetic basis of resistance in Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from diverse types of infection in different European countries, Anaerobe, vol.11, pp.137-143, 2005.

J. P. Ortonne, J. P. Petchot-bacque, P. Verrando, A. Pisani, G. Pautrat et al., Normal Merkel cells express a synaptophysin-like immunoreactivity, Dermatologica, vol.177, pp.1-10, 1988.

M. Ottaviani, T. Alestas, E. Flori, A. Mastrofrancesco, and C. C. Zouboulis, Peroxidated Squalene Induces the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in HaCaT Keratinocytes : A Possible Role in Acne Vulgaris, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.126, pp.2430-2437, 2006.

M. Otto, Staphylococcus epidermidis -the "accidental" pathogen, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.7, pp.555-567, 2009.

R. Palatsi, P. Ylostalo, and A. Taipale, Treatment of acne with cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol, Acta Derm. Venereol, vol.58, pp.449-454, 1978.

A. Pappas and A. Pappas, The relationship of diet and acne A review, Dermatoendocrinol, 1980.

L. C. Paulino, New perspectives on dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: lessons we learned from bacterial and fungal skin microbiota, Eur J Dermatol, vol.27, pp.4-7, 2017.

G. I. Perez, Z. Gao, R. Jourdain, J. Ramirez, F. Gany et al., Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome, PLoS One, 2016.

S. Pergolizzi, M. Vaccaro, L. Magaudda, M. R. Mondello, A. Arco et al., Immunohistochemical study of epidermal nerve fibres in involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy, Arch Dermatol Res, vol.290, pp.483-489, 1998.

A. L. Perry and P. A. Lambert, Propionibacterium acnes, Lett. Appl. Microbiol, vol.42, pp.185-188, 2006.

A. L. Perry, T. Worthington, A. C. Hilton, P. A. Lambert, A. J. Stirling et al., Analysis of clinical isolates of Propionibacterium acnes by optimised RAPD, FEMS Microbiol. Lett, vol.228, pp.51-55, 2003.

J. Peterson, S. Garges, M. Giovanni, P. Mcinnes, L. Wang et al., The NIH Human Microbiome Project, Genome Res, pp.2317-2323, 2009.

L. Picot, S. Chevalier, S. Mezghani-abdelmoula, A. Merieau, O. Lesouhaitier et al., Cytotoxic effects of the lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas fluorescens on neurons and glial cells, Microb. Pathog, vol.35, pp.95-106, 2003.

C. Pincelli, F. Fantini, and A. Giannetti, Neuropeptides and skin inflammation, Dermatology, vol.187, pp.153-158, 1993.

K. E. Piper, M. J. Jacobson, R. H. Cofield, J. W. Sperling, J. Sanchez-sotelo et al., Microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection by use of implant sonication, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.47, pp.1878-1884, 2009.

M. Placzek, B. Arnold, H. Schmidt, S. Gaube, E. Keller et al., Elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone serum values in male patients with acne, Am. Acad. Dermatology, pp.955-958, 2005.

V. K. Plakunov, S. V. Mart, N. A. Teteneva, and M. V. Zhurina, A Universal Method for Quantitative Characterization of Growth and Metabolic Activity of Microbial Biofilms in Static Models, microbiology, vol.85, pp.509-513, 2016.

P. E. Pochi, D. T. Downing, and D. Ph, Sebaceaous gland response in man to prolonged total caloric deprivation, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.55, pp.303-309, 1970.

T. G. Polefka, R. J. Bianchini, and S. Shapiro, Interaction of mineral salts with the skin : a literature survey, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 1-8, 2012.

F. Poli, L'acné, les dermatologues, les cosmétiques et le visa PP, Ann. Dermatol Venereol, pp.629-631, 2005.

F. Poli, M. T. Leccia, N. Auffret, J. Claudel, S. Corvec et al., Topical acne treatments in Europe and the issue of antimicrobial resistance, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol, pp.1485-1492, 2015.

F. Poncin-epaillard, J. M. Herry, P. Marmey, G. Legeay, D. Debarnot et al., Elaboration of highly hydrophobic polymeric surface--a potential strategy to reduce the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria?, Mater. Sci. Eng. C. Mater. Biol. Appl, vol.33, pp.1152-1161, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01001095

J. Powell, Skin physiology. Horm. Ski, 2006.

A. J. Probst, A. K. Auerbach, C. Moissl-eichinger, E. Proksch, and J. Lachapelle, The management of dry skin with topical emollients -recent perspectives, PLoS One, vol.8, pp.768-774, 2005.

C. L. Quave, L. R. Plano, T. Pantuso, and B. C. Bennett, Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, J. Ethnopharmacol, vol.118, pp.418-428, 2008.

G. Rastogi, G. L. Coaker, and J. H. Leveau, New insights into the structure and function of phyllosphere microbiota through high-throughput molecular approaches, FEMS Microbiol. Lett, vol.348, pp.1-10, 2013.

V. Ravelojaona, J. Molinari, and L. Robert, Protection by rhamnose-rich polysaccharides against the cytotoxicity of Maillard reaction products, Biomed. Pharmacother, vol.60, pp.359-362, 2006.

S. C. Reddymasu, S. Sostarich, and R. W. Mccallum, Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome : are there any predictors, BMC Gastroenterol, 2010.

M. Renaud and A. Miget, Rôle favorisant des perturbations locales causes par l'adrénaline sur le développement des infections microbiennes, C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, vol.103, pp.1052-1054, 1930.

R. C. Reynolds, S. Lee, J. Y. Choi, F. S. Atkinson, K. S. Stockmann et al., Effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris, Nutrients, vol.2, pp.1060-1072, 2010.

J. M. Richmond and J. E. Harris, Immunology of the Skin, Encyclopedia of Immunobiology, 2016.

U. M. Rieger, G. Pierer, N. J. Luscher, and A. Trampuz, Sonication of removed breast implants for improved detection of subclinical infection, Aesthetic Plast. Surg, vol.33, pp.404-408, 2009.

P. J. Robinson, Skin. Encycl. Toxicol, vol.4, 2014.

A. Rocha, F. Almeida, . De, P. Pinto, and G. Filho, Changes in hands microbiota associated with skin damage because of hand hygiene procedures on the health care workers, Am. J. Infect. Control, pp.155-159, 2009.

S. Rombouts, T. Nijsten, and J. Lambert, Cigarette smoking and acne in adolescents: results from a cross-sectional study, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venerol, vol.21, pp.326-333, 2007.

D. Roosterman, T. Goerge, S. W. Schneider, N. W. Bunnett, and M. Steinhoff, Neuronal control of skin function: the skin as a neuroimmunoendocrine organ, Physiol. Rev, vol.86, pp.1309-1379, 2006.

A. C. Rosa and R. Fantozzi, The role of histamine in neurogenic inflammation, Br. J. Pharmacol, 2013.

T. Rosay, A. Bazire, S. Diaz, T. Clamens, A. Blier et al., Pseudomonas aeruginosa Expresses a Functional Human Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Ortholog : Involvement in Biofilm Formation, mbio.asm, vol.6, pp.1-12, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02131475

M. Rosenthal, D. Goldberg, A. Aiello, E. Larson, and B. Foxman, Infection , Genetics and Evolution Skin microbiota : Microbial community structure and its potential association with health and disease, Infection, Genet. Evol, vol.11, pp.839-848, 2011.

C. Rosignoli, N. Jc, A. Jomard, and M. S. Involvement, Involvement of the SREBP pathway in the mode of action of androgens in sebaceous glands in vivo, Exp. Dermatol, pp.480-489, 2003.

L. Rowenczyk, C. Duclairoir-poc, M. Barreau, C. Picard, N. Hucher et al., Impact of coated TiO2-nanoparticles used in sunscreens on two representative strains of the human microbiota: Effect of the particle surface nature and aging, Colloids Surf. B. Biointerfaces, vol.158, pp.339-348, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02310897

S. M. Rudman, M. P. Philpott, A. Thomas, G. Kealey, and T. , The Role of IGF-1 in Human Skin and its Appendages: Morphogen as Well as Mitogen? Soc. Investig. ve Dermatology, 1997.

A. D. Russell, Mechanisms of bacterial insusceptibility to biocides, Hyg. Heal, 2001.

R. Sabouraud, La seborrhee grasse et la pelade, 1897.

S. M. Sandrini, R. Shergill, J. Woodward, R. Muralikuttan, R. D. Haigh et al., Elucidation of the Mechanism by Which Catecholamine Stress Hormones Liberate Iron from the Innate Immune Defense Proteins Transferrin and Lactoferrin ?, J. Bacteriol, vol.192, pp.587-594, 2010.

J. A. Sanford and R. L. Gallo, Seminars in Immunology Functions of the skin microbiota in health and disease, Semin. Immunol, vol.25, pp.370-377, 2013.

A. Sanmiguel and E. A. Grice, Interactions between host factors and the skin microbiome, Cell. Mol. Life Sci, 2014.

G. Sansone and M. D. Reisner, Differential rate of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in a acide an normal human skin -A possible pahtogenic factor in acne, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.56, pp.366-372, 1971.

T. Sato, T. Shirane, N. Noguchi, M. Sasatsu, and A. Ito, Novel anti-acne actions of nadifloxacin and clindamycin that inhibit the production of sebum , prostaglandin E 2 and promatrix metalloproteinase-2 in hamster sebocytes, J. Dermatol, 2012.

P. Sator, J. B. Schmidt, and H. Ho, Comparison of epidermal hydration and skin surface lipids in healthy individuals and in patients with atopic dermatitis, JAM ACAD DERMATOL, vol.48, pp.352-358, 2003.

T. Schafer, A. Nienhaus, D. Vieluf, J. Berger, J. Ring et al., Epidemiology of acne in the general population : the risk of smoking, Br. J. Dermatol, pp.100-104, 2001.

M. Schaller, M. Loewenstein, C. Borelli, K. Jacob, M. Vogeser et al., Induction of a chemoattractive proinflammatory cytokine response after stimulation of keratinocytes with Propionibacterium acnes and coproporphyrin III, Br. J. Dermatol, vol.153, pp.66-71, 2005.

T. C. Scharschmidt, K. S. Vasquez, H. Truong, and S. V. Gearty, A wave of regulatory T cells into neonatal skin mediates tolerance to commensal microbes, Immunity, vol.43, pp.1011-1021, 2015.

S. Schloissnig, M. Arumugam, S. Sunagawa, M. Mitreva, J. Tap et al., Genomic variation landscape of the human gut microbiome, Nature, 2012.

C. F. Scholz and M. Kilian, The natural history of cutaneous propionibacteria , and reclassification of selected species within the genus Propionibacterium to the proposed novel genera Acidipropionibacterium gen . nov, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol, pp.4422-4432, 2017.

A. Schwenke, De l'usage de l'eau thermale en nébuliseur, Sci. Pharm, 2007.

C. Severini, G. Improta, G. Falconieri-erspamer, S. Salvadori, and V. Erspamer, The tachykinin peptide family, Pharmacol Rev, vol.54, pp.285-322, 2002.

B. Shado, E. Särndahl, F. Elgh, and B. Söderquist, Propionibacterium acnes activates caspase-1 in human neutrophils, APMIS, vol.652, issue.663, 2012.

B. A. Shannon, R. J. Cohen, and K. L. Garrett, Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Propionibacterium acnes types isolated from the male urinary tract: evaluation of adolescents, normal adults and men with prostatic pathology, BJU Int, vol.98, pp.388-392, 2006.

A. M. Sharara, M. A. Higham, A. Spanevello, and P. W. Ind, Effects of intradermal injection of atrial natriuretic peptide, Br J Clin Pharmacol, pp.283-285, 1995.

I. Sharon, M. J. Morowitz, B. C. Thomas, E. K. Costello, D. A. Relman et al., Time series community genomics analysis reveals rapid shifts in bacterial species, strains, and phage during infant gut colonization, Genome Res, vol.23, pp.111-120, 2012.

M. Shu, Y. Wang, J. Yu, S. Kuo, A. Coda et al., Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes , a Commensal Bacterium in the Human Skin Microbiome , as Skin Probiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, PLoS One, vol.8, 2013.

C. K. Shutt, J. I. Pounder, S. R. Page, B. J. Schaecher, and G. L. Woods, Clinical evaluation of the DiversiLab microbial typing system using repetitive-sequence-based PCR for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.43, pp.1187-1192, 2005.

N. B. Silverberg, Whey protein precipitating moderate to severe acne flares in 5 teenaged athletes, Cutis, vol.90, pp.70-72, 2012.

R. C. Simpson, D. J. Grindlay, and H. C. Williams, What ' s new in acne ? An analysis of systematic reviews and clinically significant trials published in 2010 -11, Clin. Exp. Dermatol, pp.840-844, 2011.

P. Singh, T. K. Teal, T. L. Marsh, J. M. Tiedje, R. Mosci et al., Intestinal microbial communities associated with acute enteric infections and disease recovery, 2015.

A. Slominski, B. Zbytek, G. Nikolakis, P. R. Manna, C. Skobowiat et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Steroidogenesis in the skin : Implications for local immune functions, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, vol.137, pp.107-123, 2013.

R. Smith, A. Braue, G. A. Varigos, and N. J. Mann, The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides §, J. Dermatol. Sci, 2008.

T. M. Smith, Z. Cong, K. L. Gilliland, G. A. Clawson, and D. M. Thiboutot, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Induces Lipid Production in Human SEB-1 Sebocytes Via Sterol Response Element-Binding Protein-1, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.126, pp.1226-1232, 2006.

T. M. Smith, K. Gilliland, G. A. Clawson, and D. Thiboutot, IGF-1 Induces SREBP-1 Expression and Lipogenesis in SEB-1 Sebocytes via Activation of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase / Akt Pathway, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.128, pp.1286-1293, 2008.

H. Smola, G. Thiektter, and N. E. Fusenig, Mutual Induction of Growth Factor Gene Expression by Epidermal-Dermal Cell Interaction, J. Cell Biol, vol.122, pp.417-429, 1993.

. Solabia-technologie,-n.d.-teflose, Nokmal floea of the skin in Ptfkekent ages groups, Br.J.Derm, vol.81, p.248, 1069.

M. Song, Q. Zeng, Y. Xiang, L. Gao, J. Huang et al., The antibacterial effect of topical ozone on the treatment of MRSA skin infection, Mol. Med. Rep, vol.17, pp.2449-2455, 2018.

V. Sperandio, A. G. Torres, and J. B. Kaper, Quorum sensing Escherichia coli regulators B and C ( QseBC ): a novel twocomponent regulatory system involved in the regulation of flagella and motility by quorum sensing in E . coli, Mol. microbiol, vol.43, pp.809-821, 2002.

A. M. Sperber and J. K. Herman, crossm Metabolism Shapes the Cell, J. Bacteriol, vol.199, pp.1-14, 2017.

J. Spiro, S. Parker, I. Oliver, C. Fraser, J. M. Marks et al., Effect of PUVA on plasma and skin immunoreactive alphamelanocyte stimulating hormone concentrations, Br J Dermatol, vol.117, pp.703-707, 1987.

K. Spittaels and T. Coenye, Anaerobe Developing an in vitro arti fi cial sebum model to study Propionibacterium acnes bio fi lms, Anaerobe, vol.49, pp.21-29, 2018.

A. Spreca, S. Simonetti, and M. G. Rambotti, Atrial natriuretic peptide and guanylin-activated guanylate cyclase isoforms in human sweat glands, Histochem. J, pp.725-731, 2000.

T. Staudinger, A. Pipal, and B. Redl, Molecular analysis of the prevalent microbiota of human male and female for ehead skin compared to forearm skin and the influence of make-up, J. Appl. Microbiol, pp.1381-1389, 2011.

A. J. Steckl and P. Ray, Stress Biomarkers in Biological Fluids and Their Point-of-Use Detection, ACS Sensors, vol.3, pp.2025-2044, 2018.

A. B. Stefaniak, C. J. Harvey, and P. W. Wertz, Formulation and stability of a novel artificial sebum under conditions of storage and use, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci, vol.32, pp.347-355, 2010.

M. Steinhoff, S. Sta, S. Seeliger, J. C. Ansel, M. Schmelz et al., Modern Aspects of Cutaneous Neurogenic Inflammation, ARCH DERMATOL, vol.139, 2003.

J. Stokes and D. Pillsbury, The effect on the skin of emotional and nervous states: iii. Theoretical and practical consideration of a gastro-intestinal mechanism, Arch dem Syphilol, vol.22, pp.962-993, 1930.

A. Strickler, J. Kolmer, and J. Schamberg, Complement fixation in acne vulgaris, J. Cutan. Dis, vol.34, pp.166-178, 1916.

V. Subramanian and E. Vellaichamy, Atrial natriuretic peptide ( ANP ) inhibits DMBA / croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF-? B , MMPs , and in fi ltrating mast cells in swiss albino mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol, vol.740, pp.388-397, 2014.

S. Sugimoto, T. Iwamoto, K. Takada, K. Okuda, A. Tajima et al., Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp Degrades Specific Proteins Associated with Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Host-Pathogen, J. Bacteriol, vol.195, pp.1645-1655, 2013.

H. Sugisaki, K. Yamanaka, M. Kakeda, H. Kitagawa, and K. Tanaka, Increased interferon-g , interleukin-12p40 and IL-8 production in Propionibacterium acnes -treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patient with acne vulgaris Host response but not bacterial species is the determinant factor of the disease, J. Dermatol. Sci, vol.55, pp.47-52, 2009.

H. J. Suldermson and E. T. Thompson, The cultivation and biological characters of Bacillus acnes, J. Path. Bact, vol.14, pp.224-229, 1909.

K. Szabó and L. Kemény, Studying the genetic predisposing factors in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, Hum. Immunol, vol.72, pp.766-773, 2011.

G. Tachdjian, S. Brisset, A. Courtot, D. Schoëvaërt, and L. B. Tosca, Chapitre 6 -Peau et annexes cutanées, Embryologie et Histologie Humaines, pp.121-142, 2016.

T. Tachibana, M. Endoh, N. Fujiwara, and T. Nawa, Receptors and transporter for serotonin in Merkel cell-nerve endings in the rat sinus hair follicle. An immunohistochemical study, Arch. Histol. Cytol, vol.68, pp.19-28, 2005.

O. Takeuchi and S. Akira, Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation, Cell, vol.140, pp.805-820, 2010.

J. K. Tan, K. Bhate, and J. Tan, BJD A global perspective on the epidemiology of acne, Br. J. Dermatol, vol.172, pp.3-12, 2015.

L. Tasli, S. Turgut, N. Kacar, C. Ayada, M. Coban et al., Insulin-like growth factor-I gene polymorphism in acne vulgaris, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol, vol.27, pp.254-257, 2013.

A. Tavakkol, J. Varani, J. T. Elder, C. C. Zouboulis, and J. T. Elder, Maintenance of human skin in organ culture : role for insulinlike growth factor-1 receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor, Arch. Dermatol. Res, pp.643-651, 1999.

S. Tchaptchet, M. Gumenscheimer, C. Kalis, N. Freudenberg, C. J. Kirschning et al., TLR9-Dependent and Independent Pathways Drive Activation of the Immune System by Propionibacterium Acnes, PLoS One, vol.7, pp.1-11, 2012.

D. Thiboutot, H. Gollnick, V. Bettoli, B. Dréno, S. Kang et al., New insights into the management of acne : An update from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne Group, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol, vol.60, 2009.

A. Thielitz, D. Reinhold, R. Vetter, U. Bank, M. Helmuth et al., Lancet, vol.380, pp.61729-61731, 2010.

B. R. Vowels, S. Yang, and J. J. Leyden, Induction of Proinflammatory Cytokines by a Soluble Factor of Propionibacterium acnes : Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Acne, Infect. Immun, vol.63, pp.3158-3165, 1995.

E. R. Waelti, S. P. Inaebnit, H. P. Rast, T. Hunziker, A. Limat et al., Co-culture of human keratinocytes on post-mitotic human dermal fibroblast feeder cells production of large amounts of interleukin 6, Soc. Investig. ve Dermatology, 1992.

A. E. Wagner, G. Huck, D. P. Stiehl, and W. Jelkmann, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.372, pp.336-340, 2008.

Y. Wang, S. Kuo, M. Shu, J. Yu, S. Huang et al., Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: Implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.98, pp.411-424, 2015.

Y. Wang, W. Zhu, M. Shu, Y. Jiang, R. L. Gallo et al., The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production, PLoS One, vol.7, 2012.

Z. Wang, J. Choi, C. Wu, and A. Di-nardo, Skin commensal bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis promote survival of melanocytes bearing UVB-induced DNA damage, while bacteria Propionibacterium acnes inhibit survival of melanocytes by increasing apoptosis, Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed, vol.34, pp.405-414, 2018.

I. Wanke, H. Steffen, C. Christ, B. Krismer, F. Go et al., Skin Commensals Amplify the Innate Immune Response to Pathogens by Activation of Distinct Signaling Pathways, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.131, 2011.

D. J. Weber, W. A. Rutala, D. J. Anderson, L. F. Mbbs, E. E. Sickbert-bennett et al., Effectiveness of ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems for terminal room decontamination : Focus on clinical trials. AJIC Am, J. Infect. Control, vol.44, pp.77-84, 2016.

G. F. Webster and C. S. Cummins, Use of bacteriophage typing to distinguish Propionibacterium acne types I and II, J. Clin . Microbiol, vol.7, pp.84-90, 1978.

G. U. Webster, J. J. Leyden, R. A. Musson, and S. D. Douglas, Susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes to Killing and Degradation by Human Neutrophils and Monocytes In Vitro, Infect. Immun, vol.49, pp.116-121, 1985.

S. Werner, T. Krieg, and H. Smola, Keratinocyte -Fibroblast Interactions in Wound Healing, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.127, pp.998-1008, 2007.

P. W. Wertz, Human synthetic sebum formulation and stability under conditions of use and storage, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci, vol.31, pp.21-25, 2009.

L. S. Weyrich, S. Dixit, A. G. Farrer, A. J. Cooper, and A. J. Cooper, The skin microbiome : Associations between altered microbial communities and disease, J. Invest. Dermatol, pp.268-274, 2015.

G. A. Whale, I. C. Sutcliffe, A. R. Morrisson, E. L. Pretswell, and N. Emmison, Purification and characterisation of lipoglycan macroamphiphiles from Propionibacterium acnes, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, pp.77-85, 2004.

J. Whitacre and A. Bender, Degeneracy : A design principle for achieving robustness and evolvability, J. Theor. Biol, vol.263, pp.143-153, 2010.

G. M. White and S. Diego, Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence , classification , and subtypes of acne vulgaris, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol, vol.39, pp.34-37, 1998.

C. Wicke, B. Halliday, D. Allen, N. S. Roche, H. Scheuenstuhl et al., Effects of Steroids and Retinoids on Wound Healing. Arch Surg, p.135, 2000.

M. R. Williams and R. L. Gallo, The Role of the Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis, Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 2015.

M. Wilson, Microbial Inhabitants of Humans: Their Ecology and Role in Health and Disease, 2005.

P. Wolkenstein, L. Misery, J. Amici, R. Maghia, S. Branchoux et al., Smoking and dietary factors associated with moderate-to-severe acne in French adolescents and young adults: results of a survey using a representative sample, Dermatology, vol.230, pp.34-39, 2015.

D. J. Wozniak, K. B. Tiwari, R. Soufan, and R. K. Jayaswal, The mcsB gene of the clpC operon is required for stress tolerance and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus, Microbiology, vol.158, pp.2568-2576, 2012.

J. S. Wright, G. J. Lyon, E. A. George, T. W. Muir, and R. P. Novick, Hydrophobic interactions drive ligand-receptor recognition for activation and inhibition of staphylococcal quorum sensing, 2004.

Y. Xiao, J. S. Williams, and I. Brownell, Merkel cells and touch domes: More than mechanosensory functions? Ying, Exp Dermatol, vol.23, pp.692-695, 2014.

H. Xu, L. Timares, and C. A. Elmets, 19 -Host Defenses in Skin, Fifth Edit. ed, Clinical Immunology, 2019.

Y. Yamazaki, Allergology International Role of the microbiota in skin immunity and atopic dermatitis, Allergol. Int. J, vol.66, 2017.

J. Yan, C. D. Nadell, and B. L. Bassler, Environmental fluctuation governs selection for plasticity in biofilm production, ISME J, vol.11, pp.1569-1577, 2017.

J. Yang, U. Wu, and H. Tai, ScienceDirect Effectiveness of an ultraviolet-C disinfection system for reduction of healthcareassociated pathogens, J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 1-7, 2017.

Y. S. Yang, H. K. Lim, K. K. Hong, M. K. Shin, J. W. Lee et al., Cigarette smoke-induced interleukin-1 alpha may be involved in the pathogenesis of adult acne, Ann. Dermatol, vol.26, pp.11-16, 2014.

K. C. Yee and W. J. Cunliffe, Itching in Acne -an Unusual Complication of Therapy, Dermatology, vol.189, pp.117-119, 1994.

B. A. Yentzer, J. Hick, E. L. Reese, A. Uhas, S. R. Feldman et al., Acne vulgaris in the United States: a d escriptive epidemiology, Cutis, vol.86, pp.94-99, 2010.

J. Y. Yoon, H. H. Kwon, S. U. Min, D. M. Thiboutot, and D. H. Suh, Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Improves Acne in Humans by Modulating Intracellular Molecular Targets and Inhibiting P . acnes, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.133, pp.429-440, 2013.

S. Younis and Q. Javed, The interleukin-6 and interleukin-1A gene promoter polymorphism is associated with the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, Arch. Dermatol. Res, vol.307, pp.365-370, 2015.

N. Yu, S. Zhang, F. Zuo, K. Kang, M. Guan et al., Cultured human melanocytes express functional Toll-like receptors 2 -4 , 7 and 9, J. Dermatological Sci. J, vol.56, pp.113-120, 2009.

Y. Yu, J. Champer, and J. Kim, Analysis of the Surface, Secreted, and Intracellular Proteome of Propionibacterium acnes, EuPA open proteomics, vol.9, pp.1-7, 2015.

Y. Yu, J. Champer, and J. Kim, EuPA Open Proteomics Analysis of the surface , secreted , and intracellular proteome of Propionibacterium acnes, vol.9, pp.1-7, 2015.

H. J. Zapata, V. J. Quagliarello, M. Kleerebezem, and H. M. Timmerman, The Microbiota and Microbiomein Aging: Potential Implications in Health and Age-related Diseases, The Zeeuwen, vol.63, pp.776-781, 2013.

L. Zhang, W. Li, M. Anthonavage, and M. Eisinger, Melanocortin-5 receptor : A marker of human sebocyte differentiation, Peptides, vol.27, pp.413-420, 2006.

M. Zhang, A. A. Qureshi, D. J. Hunter, and J. Han, A genome-wide association study of severe teenage acne in European Americans, Hum. Genet, vol.133, pp.259-264, 2014.

Q. Zhang, H. Seltmann, C. C. Zouboulis, and R. L. Konger, Involvement of PPAR c in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Prostaglandin E 2 Production in SZ95 Human Sebaceous Gland Cells, J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.126, pp.42-48, 2006.

M. V. Zhurina, A. V. Gannesen, E. L. Zdorovenko, and V. K. Plakunov, Composition and Functions of the Extracellular Polymer Matrix of Bacterial Biofilms, microbiology, vol.83, pp.713-722, 2014.

C. C. Zouboulis, Acne as a chronic systemic disease, Clin. Dermatol, vol.32, pp.389-396, 2014.

C. C. Zouboulis, Acne and Sebaceous Gland Function. j.clindermatol, 2004.

C. C. Zouboulis, Is Acne vulgaris a Genuine Inflammatory Disease ? Dermatology, pp.277-279, 2001.

C. C. Zouboulis, E. Jourdan, and M. Picardo, Acne is an in fl ammatory disease and alterations of sebum composition initiate acne lesions, J. Eur. Acad. Dermatology Venereol, vol.28, pp.527-532, 2014.

C. C. Zouboulis, H. Seltmann, and T. Alestas, Zileuton prevents the activation of the leukotriene pathway and reduces sebaceous lipogenesis, Exp. Dermatol, 2010.

C. C. Zouboulis, H. Seltmann, and T. Alestas, Zileuton prevents the activation of the leukotriene pathway and reduces sebaceous lipogenesis, Exp. Dermatol, 2009.

C. C. Zouboulis, H. Seltmann, N. Hiroi, W. Chen, M. Young et al., Corticotropin-releasing hormone : An autocrine hormone that promotes lipogenesis in human sebocytes, 2002.

C. C. Zouboulis, H. Seltmann, H. Neitzel, and C. E. Orfanos, Establishment and characterization of an immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line (SZ95), J. Invest. Dermatol, vol.113, pp.1011-1020, 1999.

E. Zouboulis, A. Philpott, M. La, G. Orfanos, C. Wc et al., Résumé : L'acné vulgaris est considérée comme l'une des maladies de la peau les plus communes. Sa pathologie n'est pas encore totalement élucidée mais Cutibacterium acnes, Exp. Dermatol, vol.14, pp.143-152, 2005.

, RT4 et RT5) ont été associées à l'acné tandis que celles de RT6 sont considérées comme commensales. Les différences physiologiques de ces types de C. acnes en fonction de leur environnement (différents milieux de culture) a été étudiée. De plus, un lien a été décrit entre l'acné et le stress, l'utilisation de produits cosmétiques sans conservateurs est en plein essor et les bactéries sont capables de réagir à des facteurs locaux par des changements métaboliques importants, Cette bactérie est caractérisée par une importante variabilité génomique et les souches de ribotype, vol.4

, De plus, le type acnéique semble associé à un potentiel inflammatoire plus important, ce qui conforte sa possible implication dans l'acné. Les catécholamines (épinéphrine et norépinéphrine) peuvent stimuler leur capacité de formation de biofilm et C. acnes traité avec ces molécules peut stimuler la lipogenèse des sébocytes. Un lien pourrait donc être fait entre le stress et le rôle potentiel de C. acnes dans l'acné. D'autre part, cette étude montre également que le biofilm de C, Cette étude montre que les différents types de C. acnes sont adaptés à des niches écologiques différentes : les souches acnéiques semblent adaptées à un développement dans les glandes sébacées tandis que les souches commensales se trouveraient plutôt en surface et en haut du follicule pileux

, This bacterium is characterized by high genomic variability and some strains as ribotype 4 and 5 (RT4 and RT5) strains are highly associated with acne whereas RT6 strains are enriched in healthy skin. The physiological differences between these C. acnes types were evaluated dependently of their environment (culture media). Moreover, a link between acne and stress has been described, the use of preservative-free-cosmetics is burgeoning and bacteria can react to local factors by important metabolic changes. In this respect, two catecholamines and two cosmetic compounds were also tested. This study shows that the different C. acnes types are adapted to different ecological niches: acneic strains are adapted to sebaceous glands whereas non-acneic strains are more adapted to the skin surface and the upper hair follicle. Moreover, the acneic type seems associated to a more important inflammatory potential, which consolidates its possible implication in acne. The catecholamines can stimulate its biofilm formation and C. acnes treated by these molecules can stimulated the lipogenesis in sébocytes. Then, this study highlights the existence of a link between stress and the potential role of C, Mots-clés : C. acnes, adaptation, biofilm, potentiel inflammatoire, virulence, acné, stress Abstract : Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases. Its pathogenesis is still unclear but Cutibacterium acnes (former Propionibacterium acnes) is considered as essential for its development

, Keywords: C. acnes, adaptation, biofilm, inflammatory potential, virulence, acne, stress