Le striatum, substrat dopaminergique de l'impulsivité décisionnelle

Abstract : Temporal discounting is the process by which future rewards are subjectively devalued by the decision maker. Impulsive choices, defined as the tendency to prefer small immediate rewards over larger but delayed ones, derive from a high temporal discounting. This particular dimension of impulsivity is a trait of personality, but also a symptom in many neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been shown many times that impulsive choices can be modulated by dopaminergic agents. The dopamine targets the striatum, a cerebral structure linked to cortex, subdivided into three territories – the Ventral Striatum (VS), the Caudate Nucleus (CdN) and the Putamen - and involved in motivation, goal directed behaviors, decision making and action selection. All these functions are involved in impulsive behaviors, although the specific role of each territory in impulsivity remains unknown. Here, using pharmacologic and imaging approaches, we aimed to study the role of the anterior striatum in impulsive choices using the delay discounting task in non-human primates. First, we showed that the CdN supports impulsive choices triggered by Pramipexole, a D2/3 agonist suspected to produce impulsive control disorders. In a second study, we used Methylphenidate, a blocker of dopamine transporter used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and we demonstrated that the VS supports Methylphenidate therapeutic effects on impulsive choices expressed in temporal discounting task. Together, our results show that dopaminergic modulation plays a specific role on the CdN and the VS in the processes of impulsive choices, and suggest a dual action between ventral and dorsal striatal territories
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Eva Martinez. Le striatum, substrat dopaminergique de l'impulsivité décisionnelle. Neurosciences. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1094⟩. ⟨tel-02312720⟩

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