Discrimination and Sequencing of Polymers with Biological Nanopores

Abstract : The technique of detection with nanopores at the single molecule level, is one of the most powerful method for the analysis of various molecules, of which biological and synthetic polymers, proteins and peptides, sugar molecules or metal nanoparticles. These pores can also serve as a platform for the study of fundamental physical and biological phenomenons. In the context of molecule analysis, this work, which is experimented using the technique of planar lipid bilayer painting, focuses mainly on the detection of polymers and their utility to portray fundamental processes of the α-hemolysin and aerolysin biological nanopores.The first results chapter described the probing of flows through α-hemolysin and aerolysin using polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and α-cyclodextrines, and the effects of KCl and LiCl salts on the interaction of PEGs with these pores. One main finding was that there exists a stronger electoosmotic flow in aerolysin, responsible for the transport of the neutral molecules α-cyclodextrines. The second finding was that the dynamics of PEGs with the nanopores are strongly dependent on the salt, showing drastic differences of frequency and dwell times vs. voltage for the two salts, although, the results of detection of mass of PEGs pointed to the fact that the nature of the interaction with the pore is similar in both salts.The aim of the work presented in the second results chapter, was to detect precision polymers, and find the best conditions, which can lead to their sequencing with nanopores. The homo- an copolymers of poly(phosphodiester)s were probed using α-hemolysin, aerolysin and MspA. The first type of polymers investigated which contained a 3-polythymidine primer and a sequence of comonomers of type (0) showed a strong interaction with the pores that was interpreted as the promotion of ssDNA-primer to the binding with the pore, combined to a high flexibility of the first type of polymers. The polymers which contained alkyne and triazole side chains, were found to have more complex interactions, but interacted for shorter durations with the pore indicating them to be stiffer. The second type of polymers seemed to be clustering in solution due the interaction between side chains, which proved the importance of performing characterization of these molecules in solution using wave scattering in the context of detection and ultimately sequencing.The study of the third result chapter, focused on the dynamics of small oligonucleotides with the aerolysin pore. The interaction of polyadenines (A3, A4, A5) showed complex dynamics and kinetics with pore, which was investigated via analysis of the events pattern. The whole process was found to be governed by two binding sites and energy barriers inside the pore that the molecules have to overcome. These results were combined to a developed kinetic model which allowed a complete description of the binding and translocation (or failure of it) of these polyadenines.The last results chapter described the interaction of bigger polyadenines (A6-A7-A8-A9-A10) with the aerolysin nanopore. The analysis of amplitude of currents of the adenine-induced blocks inside this pore showed an orientation dependent interaction of the molecules with the pore. This orientation dependent interaction started to be apparent for the A7 molecule and became the dominant effect for A9 and A10. Due to the flexibility of ssDNA, this effect is not observed for smaller sized molecules (A6 and below) because of their possibility of reorientation while inside the pore.
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Mordjane Boukhet. Discrimination and Sequencing of Polymers with Biological Nanopores. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Cergy Pontoise; Albert-Ludwigs-Universität (Fribourg-en-Brisgau, Allemagne), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018CERG0984⟩. ⟨tel-02311628⟩

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