La construction d’un agir compétent en Éducation Physique : analyse de l’expérience des élèves et du processus de typification des connaissances

Abstract : The situated approach of competence can be understood as a ‘competence in action’ in familiar situations. This competence in action is composed by experiential and “typicalized” knowledge. The objective of our work was to analyze the process of “typification” of students’ knowledge. We based our analysis on their own experience with the aim to identify favorable and unfavorable conditions for building competences. Those conditions were analyzed in view of teachers’ expectations. The present work relied on the theoretical and methodological framework of the course of action (Theureau, 2006), which postulates that the activity is cognitive, situated and that individuals’ experiences can be described through archetypal structures (Gal-Petitfaux & Durand, 2001). Three types of data have been collected: a) teacher planning documents; b) data recording of student and teacher activity in class; c) students’ verbalization during self-confrontation interviews. We transcribed those data in order to identify experiential dimensions in students’ activity: the « Representamen », the « Engagement » and Knowledge. This enabled us to analyze the dynamics of “typification” of knowledge during each lesson and to identify favorable and unfavorable conditions. Those conditions were compared with expectations of the teacher for a targeted competence. Two case studies were conducted in Middle School during a Table Tennis unit, and the second in High School during a Basket-ball unit. The results highlighted several categories of knowledge typified by the students, referring to: rules, assessment of level of play, and quality of the game. Some conditions have provided opportunities for knowledge “typification”: a) the situations’ stability during a unit; b) the use of tools to evaluate his/her own competence; c) artifacts in link with students’ goals; d) interactions between students encouraged by a common goal; e) interactions with the teacher who ask questions and help to transform students’ knowledge. Some other conditions have inhibited the targeted competence: a) the familiarity perception of students focused on the rules; b) a diversion of some artefacts by the students; c) interactions with the teacher that do not make sense for the students. Those results were discussed in light of the students’ perception of familiarity, the conditions for introducing artifacts and the form of interactions in classroom. Some professional perspectives were discussed in light of various characteristics of situations that provide opportunities to build competences.
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Léa Gottsmann. La construction d’un agir compétent en Éducation Physique : analyse de l’expérience des élèves et du processus de typification des connaissances. Education. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAL011⟩. ⟨tel-02311142⟩

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