Développement de nouveaux composites hybrides renforcés par des fibres de carbone et de lin : mise en oeuvre et caractérisation mécanique

Abstract : The goal of this thesis is, on the one hand, the optimization of the manufacturing of composite materials through the study of the behavior of dry fibrous reinforcements in compaction and, on the other hand, the development and characterization of hybrid composite laminates reinforced with carbon and flax fibers. During the manufacturing process of these composites, the reinforcements are subjected to a phenomenon called transverse compaction. Understanding this mechanism is important for improving the manufacturing process. Knowledge of the compaction capacity of the dry reinforcements also serves to predict the fiber content as well as the thickness of the final composite part. Compaction tests carried out on twelve reinforcements presenting different technical solutions have shown that the compaction capacity of a dry reinforcement is influenced by several factors. The results obtained from this work, which focuses on natural fiber reinforcements (flax), have shown that these types of reinforcement are less compactable than synthetic fiber reinforcements (carbon, glass). Thus, to be able to improve the compaction capacity of these natural reinforcements, it is necessary to choose those whose area density is important, those whose tows are in fiber not in yarn, those which are unidirectional (or quasi UD) rather than woven or bi-bias. In addition, it is necessary to choose a multi-ply sequence rather than single-ply sequence. Faced with a strong need for lightening structures, composite materials are increasingly sought in the industrial sector, particularly in the transport sector. However, composite materials like any other material, in addition to being mechanically efficient, must perform other functions such as damping shock and vibration for good performance in service. To meet this double requirement, one of the solutions is to use the hybridization technique which consists in using within the same composite natural and synthetic fibers at the same time in order to exploit their respective advantages. Respectively because of their rigidity and their damping capacity, the carbon and flax fibers were chosen in the context of this thesis. The characterization of the laminate composite plates manufactured with resin infusion process shows that the carbon composite has better mechanical and microstructural properties while the flax composite offers very interesting damping properties. The results show that hybridization of flax with carbon considerably improves the low mechanical properties of the flax composite and the poor damping properties of the carbon composite. The stacking sequence of layers has a significant influence on the behavior and properties of the hybrid laminates. Our results showed that to have a better microstructure the carbon layers must be put outside. This way of hybridizing also makes it possible to obtain better properties in flexion and shock. By contrast, when the flax layers are placed outside, the hybrid composite has a better damping capacity. This stacking sequence also guarantees a better indentation strength. Thus, the hybrid stacking sequence to choose will depend on the need that is sought to meet. Finally, thanks to an analysis based on classical laminate theory, it has been demonstrated in this thesis that hybrid composite laminates can be dimensioned despite the fact that the constituent layers are of different types with dissimilar properties.
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Eric Tossou. Développement de nouveaux composites hybrides renforcés par des fibres de carbone et de lin : mise en oeuvre et caractérisation mécanique. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC209⟩. ⟨tel-02310689⟩

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