Développement, temps et attention : comportements et modélisation.

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to study the development of temporal behaviors and their changes according to children's contexts and cognitive abilities, in order to propose a model of the distortions of time judgment. A set of 9 experimental studies were carried out in this thesis belonging to 3 main axes. Axis 1 – Development of time and neuropsychology. This axis aims to examine the role of cognitive abilities (attention, memory, processing speed) in the distortions of time judgment in children. For this reason, children aged from 5 to 8 years, as well as adults, have been subjected to paradigms of attention distractor and double-task, with competing tasks of different natures, either non-temporal (color discrimination) or temporal (discrimination or reproduction of durations). Children's abilities were assessed using different neuropsychological tests. The results show that time distortions (underestimation of time) in children are related to their limited attentional abilities, particularly to their abilities in selective attention in the case of dual tasks and to that of inhibition in attentional distraction. Thus, two attentional mechanisms impact the judgment of time, one linked to the triggering of the "attentional switch" time processing and the other to the "attentional gate" attentional resources. Nevertheless, when the subject has to treat two durations in parallel, one does not observe temporal underestimation, contrarily, an overestimation of the time is revealed. Moreover, this distortion of time is no longer linked to the cognitive abilities of the child, although it is more difficult for the child to perform a second temporal task than a second non-temporal task. This suggests the existence of an internal clock system (or multiple clocks) capable of independently processing multiple durations. However, our results show that attentional processes interfere with this system, thus causing temporal distortions.Axis 2 - Time and context. Within the framework of this axis, we studied the influence of the temporal context on the distortions of time in the child and the adult, according to the order of presentation of the durations in the experimental session, their sensory modality (visual or auditory), and the social significance of the stimulus to be estimated (state of the other). The results show the strong influence of the contexts on the duration’s judgment in the young child. In fact, they show greater time overestimation when the durations vary from sensory modality from one trial to another. Their temporal judgment is also more influenced by the value of the durations presented previously. They are also subject to more temporal distortions, incorporating in their estimations the perceived state of the other (movement, emotion), although the explicit acquisition of the theory of mind accentuates these distortions. Moreover, our results show that the amplitude of these contextual distortions of time is directly related to the cognitive abilities of the child, notably of his attention and working memory abilities. These results testify to the determining influence of the development of cognitive functions on the judgment of time. Axis 3 - Time and modeling. In this third area, a series of neural networks (Simple Recutrent Network and Multi-Layer Perceptron) has been undertaken to propose a new developmental model of time judgment, combining automatic internal clock processes with interfering cognitive processes. Our model allows us to predict significantly the distortions of time in humans at different ages. Our model is therefore able to simulate temporal judgment bias based on inter and intra-individual cognitive differences. This original model should make it possible to systematically study the difficulties of time judgment in different contexts and in various populations with or without disorders.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 10, 2019 - 12:58:16 PM
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Quentin Hallez. Développement, temps et attention : comportements et modélisation.. Psychologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAL006⟩. ⟨tel-02310658⟩

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