Segmentation d'image par intégration itérative de connaissances

Abstract : Image processing has been a very active area of research for years. The interpretation of images is one of its most important branches because of its socio-economic and scientific applications. However, the interpretation, like most image processing processes, requires a segmentation phase to delimit the regions to be analyzed. In fact, interpretation is a process that gives meaning to the regions detected by the segmentation phase. Thus, the interpretation phase can only analyze the regions detected during the segmentation. Although the ultimate objective of automatic interpretation is to produce the same result as a human, the logic of classical techniques in this field does not marry that of human interpretation. Most conventional approaches to this task separate the segmentation phase from the interpretation phase. The images are first segmented and then the detected regions are interpreted. In addition, conventional techniques of segmentation scan images sequentially, in the order of pixels appearance. This way does not necessarily reflect the way of the expert during the image exploration. Indeed, a human usually starts by scanning the image for possible region of interest. When he finds a potential area, he analyzes it under three view points trying to recognize what object it is. First, he analyzes the area based on its physical characteristics. Then he considers the region's surrounding areas and finally he zooms in on the whole image in order to have a wider view while considering the information local to the region and those of its neighbors. In addition to information directly gathered from the physical characteristics of the image, the expert uses several sources of information that he merges to interpret the image. These sources include knowledge acquired through professional experience, existing constraints between objects from the images, and so on.The idea of the proposed approach, in this manuscript, is that simulating the visual activity of the expert would allow a better compatibility between the results of the interpretation and those ofthe expert. We retain from the analysis of the expert's behavior three important aspects of the image interpretation process that we will model in this work: 1. Unlike what most of the segmentation techniques suggest, the segmentation process is not necessarily sequential, but rather a series of decisions that each one may question the results of its predecessors. The main objective is to produce the best possible regions classification. 2. The process of characterizing an area of interest is not a one way process i.e. the expert can go from a local view restricted to the region of interest to a wider view of the area, including its neighbors and vice versa. 3. Several information sources are gathered and merged for a better certainty, during the decision of region characterisation. The proposed model of these three levels places particular emphasis on the knowledge used and the reasoning behind image segmentation.
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Mahaman Sani Chaibou Salaou. Segmentation d'image par intégration itérative de connaissances. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Ecole nationale supérieure Mines-Télécom Atlantique, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019IMTA0140⟩. ⟨tel-02310224⟩

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