Effet d'une contremesure nutritionnelle sur l'inflexibilité métabolique induite par simulation d'impesanteur chez l'homme

Abstract : Space missions and bedrest simulation studies have shown that physical inactivity affects all physiological systems in humans. In prolonged bed rest conditions, our laboratory (UMR7178, IPHC, DEPE, Strasbourg) showed that metabolic adaptations were close to that found in the metabolic syndrome associated with metabolic chronic diseases in the general population. Based on these results, we proposed a hypothesis to describe the cascade of events leading to metabolic alterations in simulated microgravity, leading to the development of metabolic inflexibility. Metabolic inflexibility is defined as the inability of the body to adjust fuel use to changes in fuel availability. The first objective of this Thesis was to test this hypothesis and understand the mechanisms underlying the simulated microgravity induced metabolic alterations. Specifically, we focused on characterizing the metabolic inflexibility syndrome in humans through clinical investigation of muscle condition, inflammation and oxidative stress, insulin sensitivity and oxidation of energy substrates in a proof of concept study and a 60-day microgravity simulation study in healthy male adults. Based on recent studies demonstrating the impact of nutritional supplements on metabolic adaptations associated with many chronic metabolic diseases, a proof-of-concept study tested the efficacy of a nutritional cocktail composed of polyphenols, omega-3, vitamin E and selenium. In the feasibility study, we showed that supplementation reduced muscle atrophy, oxidative stress and the development of metabolic inflexibility via an improvement in lipid oxidation and a reduction in de novo lipogenesis following a 20-day period of physical inactivity induced by daily step reduction. Based on these first results, a 60-day bed rest study was conducted in health men to test the effects of the dietary cocktail in simulated microgravity conditions. In this second human clinical research study, nutritional supplementation prevented at least partially acute and chronic adaptations caused by physical inactivity induced by bed rest. In particular, supplementation increased antioxidant blood defenses, prevented increased lipid levels, reduced lipid oxidation and mitigated the development of acute and chronic metabolic inflexibility in absence of metabolic challenge. However, the countermeasure did not have a protective effect following a metabolic challenge in the form of carbohydrate overnutrition. All the results indicate that the development of metabolic inflexibility appears to be an early event, which, if detected in time, could prove to be a useful biomarker to use to prevent chronic diseases in the 21st century. Moreover, this study demonstrated the advantage of an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cocktail by limiting metabolic alterations without having harmful effects on other systems, while being easy to implement and cost-effective. Even if the nutritional countermeasure used in this study is not sufficient to keep all physiological systems intact, further studies will have to be carried out to find the ideal combination of countermeasures to limit microgravity-induced degradation and thus allow new advances in space exploration (Moon, Mars) over the next decades. In this line, an adapted protocol of physical activity combined with a nutritional countermeasure in the form of a cocktail could be a promising approach.
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Anthony Damiot. Effet d'une contremesure nutritionnelle sur l'inflexibilité métabolique induite par simulation d'impesanteur chez l'homme. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Strasbourg, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018STRAJ124⟩. ⟨tel-02309610⟩

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