Détection et caractérisation des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans les aliments par AF4-ICP-MS et Sp-ICP-MS

Abstract : The thesis focuses on the development of methods for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) characterization in food products. The study was separated distinctly into two axes. The development of the AF4-ICP-MS (I) method within the CEA Nano-Safety Platform in Grenoble and the development of the Sp-ICP-MS (II) method within the Food Safety Laboratory of the Anses in Maisons-Alfort.For the first axis, the electrostatic interactions between the particles and the AF4 membrane were studied. The surface charge (zeta potential) was measured for particles and membranes depending on several solvent parameters such as pH, ionic strength and the presence of surfactants. Following the several analyzes carried out, several solvent conditions have been identified as promoting the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the membrane, which will make it possible to reduce the losses of particles at the level of the membrane. Several conditions were therefore directly tested for NPs analysis of TiO2 in AF4-ICP-MS. It has thus been shown that the conditions favoring electrostatic repulsions make it possible to improve the efficiency of the particles at the level of the AF4 system. However, the analyzes also showed that the TiO2 NPs were not sufficiently dispersed to obtain a reliable size distribution.The second part of the thesis aimed at first optimizing the data treatment of the Sp-ICP-MS method. Several improvements have been made such as the automatic calculation of the background-particle threshold, the calculation of the transport efficiency or the addition of quality control parameters. This data treatment was then compared to a software dedicated to analyzes by Sp-ICP-MS and made it possible to highlight that the internal spreadsheet gives results with a better accuracy, while providing additional parameters.In a second time an optimization of the Sp-ICP-MS method was carried out. Several parameters were therefore evaluated such as the choice of the titanium isotope, the acquisition time, the type of solvent to disperse the particles, as well as the sample collection mode and its flow rate.Finally, several foods were analyzed after setting up an extraction protocol for NPs. The results obtained made it possible to determine a size distribution of the NPs of TiO2 present in the samples.
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Lucas Givelet. Détection et caractérisation des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans les aliments par AF4-ICP-MS et Sp-ICP-MS. Génie chimique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAI037⟩. ⟨tel-02309590⟩

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