A la recherche des papillons perdus : Les naturalistes amateurs à l'épreuve des observatoires participatifs de la biodiversité

Abstract : Many amateur naturalists comb the countryside and sometimes undertake full-size expeditions to inventory the different entities of the natural world. They do it by passion, on their leisure time, and often in close collaboration with academic institutions, especially museums of natural history. Faced with the extinction crisis affecting biodiversity, this collaboration between amateurs and professionals is being renewed through what is called citizen sciences (participatory sciences in France). This thesis documents this phenomenon with the aim of understanding how participatory observatories of biodiversity transform the practice of amateur naturalists. In order to better represent the diversity of observers and schemes, we chose to focus on butterfly watchers little studied so far when they get involved in biodiversity atlases or monitoring schemes. Through ethnographic methods favoring long-term investigation and description of situated practices, our work paid a particular attention to document the irruption of digital technologies in the circulation of knowledge among peers, the diversification of attention regimes in observation experiences, and the multiplication of ways to alert society on the dangers that threat biodiversity. By highlighting the link between the community, the experiential and the political components of amateur naturalists’ activities, this thesis defends the idea that there is a continuum between the movement of bodies and the formation of values : the engagement of amateur naturalists thus appears as processual and multifaceted. The pleasure to observe and the need to testify intertwine, with attachments to encountered species and to visited areas which generate in some contexts activist attitudes reducing the partition of knowledges.
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Emmanuel Charonnet. A la recherche des papillons perdus : Les naturalistes amateurs à l'épreuve des observatoires participatifs de la biodiversité. Anthropologie sociale et ethnologie. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MNHN0004⟩. ⟨tel-02309538v2⟩

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