Analyse des coordinations entre la posture et le mouvement lors de l’initiation de la marche avec enjambement d’obstacle : anticipation posturale, adaptation et modélisation.

Abstract : The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the postural organization of gait initiation (GI) during the application of temporal and spatial constraints. The main hypothesis was that the postural system, in the healthy young adult, is able to adapt to the degree of constraint imposed experimentally, in order to maintain an invariant level of motor performance and stability. Three studies were conducted to test this main hypothesis, with the addition of a validation study measuring the dimensions of the base of support (BOS). The objective of the first study was to analyze the effect of temporal pressure (TP) and the presence (or not) of an obstacle to be cleared on the postural organization of GI. The results showed that the duration of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) was drastically reduced under the condition of high TP (GI in reaction time) compared to the condition of low TP (GI in self-initiated). This constraint didn’t result in a decrease of stability and motor performance, probably due to the increase in APA amplitude. In addition, it has been shown that clearing an obstacle induces an increase in the duration of the swing phase causing, a potential increase of the postural instability. This negative effect was, however, counterbalanced by the development of more significant APA than without obstacle. In this first study, the height and the distance of the obstacle were fixed. The objective of the second study was to analyze the effect of a modification in the characteristics of the obstacle to be cleared, combined with a variation of temporal constraint on the postural organization of GI. Three heights and three obstacle distances, and two TP levels were combined. To insist on the adaptive character of the characteristics of APA modulation according to the spatiotemporal constraints imposed, an original mechanical model of the human body formalizing the centre of mass trajectory has been elaborated. In agreement with the first study, the results showed that postural stability and motor performance remained equivalent under the different experimental conditions, despite wide variations in the imposed stress level. The mechanical model allowed us to demonstrate that this invariance was related to the amplitude modulation of APA, thereby demonstrating the adaptability of the postural system to imposed constraints. This experiment also highlights "fortuitously" that as the obstacle distance increase, the higher percentage of forefoot strike increase. Also, the objective of the third study was to analyze the effect of the foot strike strategy (front or rear foot) on the postural organization of the GI with an obstacle to be cleared. The results showed that this postural organization was dependent on the swing foot-off strategy. These results suggested the existence of an interdependent relationship between GI's balance control mechanisms and the foot strike strategy, allowing an optimal control of stability. Finally, the objective of the fourth study was to validate the measurement of the BOS dimensions during GI using a force platform (dynamic method), taking the VICON system as gold standard. The results showed that the dynamic method was sufficiently precise to be compared to the gold standard. In conclusion, all of these results suggest that in the healthy young adult, the CNS is able to adaptively and optimally modulate the balance control mechanisms according to the spatiotemporal constraints imposed experimentally. For clinical implications, GI with obstacle to be cleared would be an interesting method of rehabilitation in both test-retest and rehabilitation where the obstacle would provide a measurable and reproducible constraint.
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Romain Artico. Analyse des coordinations entre la posture et le mouvement lors de l’initiation de la marche avec enjambement d’obstacle : anticipation posturale, adaptation et modélisation.. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS178⟩. ⟨tel-02309459⟩

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