Cycle de vie de nanoparticules dans l'organisme : biotransformations et biodégradaton.

Abstract : With the advent of nanotechnology, the exposure of humans to nanomaterials increased, representing a risk of a new kind. Although the potential toxicity of such nanomaterials is extensively studied, their long term fate, biotransformation and degradation in the organism are still poorly understood. It was demonstrated earlier in the laboratory, that after intravenous injection, iron oxide nanoparticles undergo local intracellular degradation within lysosomes. In this context, we are interested in the fate of by products from iron oxide nanoparticles. Part of my thesis has focused on a possible pathway for metabolizing these degradation products through a protein involved in iron metabolism, the ferritin. We first studied, in solution, the degradation processes of iron oxide nanoparticles in the presence of these proteins as well as the iron transfer processes from nanoparticles to ferritin. The difficulty is the high concentration of endogenous iron which makes impossible to demonstrate these in vivo transfers. Thus, we have developed a strategy, using doped iron oxide nanoparticles with a scarce element in the organism, to track these phenomena in vivo. This work highlighted a possible mechanism of biological recycling, remediation and detoxification of nanoparticles mediated by endogenous proteins at the molecular scale. A second part of my work was devoted to develop a multi-scale method to study the life cycle of metal oxide nanoparticles and their by products in organism. The main challenge is to differentiate iron stemming from the nanoparticles from the endogenous iron. This specific tracking problem is routinely encountered in geochemical studies and solved by labelling the target material with minor stable isotopes. Therefore, iron oxide nanoparticles enriched in the minor stable isotope 57Fe were synthetized and injected intravenously in mice to follow dynamic circulations of iron oxide nanoparticles and their byproducts. We have also labelled the coating to track the nanoparticles integrity in mice over a period of six month
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Jeanne Volatron. Cycle de vie de nanoparticules dans l'organisme : biotransformations et biodégradaton.. Physique [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC102⟩. ⟨tel-02308211⟩

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