Modèle multi-échelle de la fatigue des lignes d’ancrage câblées pour l’éolien offshore flottant

Abstract : The main function of mooring systems of floating offshore wind turbines is to ensure station keeping. The mooring lines can be composed of chains, wire ropes, synthetic ropes, or even a combination of them. In this thesis we focus on wire ropes, whose advantage over chain is to sustain high tension at a lower weight. Their design must consider the successive tension and bending loading induced by the floater movement for various wind and waves conditions.The thesis purpose is to develop a new numerical model, dedicated to the prediction of fatigue damage in mooring wire ropes of a floating wind turbine. In particular it has to simulate the relative movements between the wires when the rope is bent. Results from free-bending fatigue tests in the literature show the importance of these effects, since the first rupture is localized near the neutral plane, where fretting is more important. This phenomenon affecting the fatigue life is not considered by fatigue criteria of current offshore standards, which are related to tension-tension loading.It is worth noting that the use of a detailed model of wire rope in a fatigue design procedure represents a real challenge. The high number of contact interactions to be modeled, which are several thousands per meter of rope, and the large amount of loading cases make this type of computations extremely time-consuming.The loading used in the developed local model of wire rope is obtained from global computations performed with a dedicated multiphysics software (Deeplines). This software allows to simulate the environmental conditions (wind, waves, current) applied on the whole structural system.Some preliminary computations showed that the nonlinear bending behavior of the wire rope, linked to the wire contact interactions, does not significantly affect the output of the global model. This observation justifies the use of a top-down scheme, with a prior computation of the global scale.The global scale tension and curvature are then uniformly imposed on the central wire of the local model. The continuity of the rope is represented by periodic conditions which link the end sections to points within the model, at the same circumferential locations. The wires are modeled by beam elements. The outputs at the local scale are the stress resultants on the wires, and the contact forces and relative displacements at contact locations.Small sliding between the wires has been observed from first numerical analysis, for a representative loading case. Therefore, in order to reduce the computational cost of the wire rope model, a new node-to-node contact element has been developed, dedicated to the modeling of contact between non-parallel beams with circular cross section. It assumes fixed contact pairing and finite rotations. Numerical benchmarks and experimental tests on wire ropes show the improvement with results closer to a reference surface-to-surface model, when compared to standard algorithm for the simulation of contact between beams. Moreover, the new model reduces significantly the CPU cost and is also more robust, which is crucial for fatigue life estimates.The outputs of the local scale model are then used to obtain the complete 3D stress state by means of analytical solutions of contact between solids with cylindrical shape. Finally, a multiaxial fatigue criterion is applied in order to assess the safety of the system.
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Federico Bussolati. Modèle multi-échelle de la fatigue des lignes d’ancrage câblées pour l’éolien offshore flottant. Mécanique des solides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLN041⟩. ⟨tel-02307977⟩

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