Diversité des agents pathogènes de l’abeille dans le Sud-Ouest de l’Océan Indien dans un contexte d’invasion récente de Varroa destructor et mortalités associées

Abstract : The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a key species in its native range for both ecosystem services offerred and for bee products. However, its populations are subject to various biotic stressors responsible for significant mortalities. In the South-West Indian Ocean region the endemic bee subspecies is A. m.unicolor. However, no studies had been carried out on its pathosphere and it is only since 2010 where the ectoparasite Varroa destructor invaded some of these islands, threatening this subspecies, that first studies were conducted. In this thesis work, we carried out a general inventory of the health of honeybee herds through descriptive epidemiological surveys in the majority of islands: Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, Madagascar and Seychelles. We were able to show quite similar epidemiological facies between islands, characterized by a dominance of Nosema ceranae especially in small islands (80-100%) and the presence of 3 viruses: BQCV (4-89%), CBPV (2- 51% except in Rodrigues) and DWV (4-40% except in Reunion). Other pathogens have only been found in certain territories such as Aethinatumida, Braula pretoriensis, Acarapis sp. or Melissococcus plutonius. The analysis of the genetic diversity carried out on the 3 viruses showed a proximity of viral strains within the SOOI. Surveys conducted in a context without varroa showed good colony health with no clinical signs. The observed mortalities concerned only the territories invaded by varroa: Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion. Varroa therefore appears to be the main cause of acute colony mortality in the area long before other pathogens or environmental causes. Its impact on bee populations and ultimately on native ecosystems will be evaluated in future years.
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Olivier Esnault. Diversité des agents pathogènes de l’abeille dans le Sud-Ouest de l’Océan Indien dans un contexte d’invasion récente de Varroa destructor et mortalités associées. Sciences agricoles. Université de la Réunion, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LARE0044⟩. ⟨tel-02307585⟩

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