Une analyse pragmatiste des processus d'apprentissage en agroécologie : le cas de l'agriculture de conservation

Abstract : Agriculture is facing multiple environmental and social challenges; in order to address them, practices based on the management of ecological processes have been pointed out as possible solutions. Such practices, known as agroecological, cannot be the result of a simple application of technical recipes: they must be developed locally, in close interaction with the ecological characteristics of the system managed by each farmer. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the evolution of the knowledge production and diffusion system, with the farmers as developers of their own practices having an especially important role. Therefore, the goal of this work is to better understand how farmers learn to develop agroecological practices in order to contribute to the support of other farmers in their own transition towards similar practices. We focus on conservation agriculture, which is based on three main principles: reduction of soil disturbance, crop diversification, and permanent soil cover. With the help of theoretical elements grounded in pragmatist philosophy, we qualitatively analyze interviews conducted with farmers experienced in conservation agriculture in different regions of France. This leads us to the proposal of a framework to describe the learning processes and the pragmatic judgements that develop along these processes. We then specify the possible developments of pragmatic judgements, and the specificities of the learning processes that allow such changes. Finally, we focus on individual characteristics of the learning processes, studying them partly through contrasting farmers' trajectories of changes toward conservation agriculture practices. Our results enable us to make different suggestions for the support of farmers' learning: we argue that it is important to take into account the diversity of learning processes without reducing it into a typology of learning styles, and we discuss a possible application of the binding communication theory to facilitate the transition toward conservation agriculture practices. Ultimately, our results suggest that we should think about agroecology not only as a goal for agricultural development, but also as a means for the development of individuals.
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Hélène Cristofari. Une analyse pragmatiste des processus d'apprentissage en agroécologie : le cas de l'agriculture de conservation. Sciences et techniques de l'agriculture. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30175⟩. ⟨tel-02307525⟩

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